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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 790762, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/790762
Research Article

Gender Differences in Childhood Lyme Neuroborreliosis

1Department of Pediatrics, Stavanger University Hospital, Gerd Ragna Bloch Thorsens Gate 8, 4011 Stavanger, Norway
2Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway

Received 8 July 2015; Revised 1 October 2015; Accepted 4 October 2015

Academic Editor: Hrayr Attarian

Copyright © 2015 Dag Tveitnes and Knut Øymar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Many neurological diseases show differences between genders. We studied gender differences in childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in an endemic area of Lyme borreliosis in Norway. Methods. In a population based study, all children (<14 years of age) with symptoms suspicious of LNB, including all children with acute facial nerve palsy, were evaluated for LNB by medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, and lumbar puncture. LNB was diagnosed according to international criteria. Results. 142 children were diagnosed with LNB during 2001–2009. Facial nerve palsy was more common in girls (86%) than in boys (62%) , but headache and/or neck stiffness as the only symptom was more common in boys (30%) than in girls (10%) . The girls were younger than boys and had a shorter duration of symptoms, but boys had a higher level of pleocytosis than girls. In a multivariate analysis, both gender and having headache and neck stiffness were associated with a higher level of pleocytosis. Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation.