Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 960725, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/960725
Research Article

On Colour, Category Effects, and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Critical Review of Studies and Further Longitudinal Evidence

1Departamento de Psicología Básica I, Facultad de Psicología, UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal, No. 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2Departamento de Psicología Básica II (Procesos Cognitivos), Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, Pozuelo de Alarcón, 28223 Madrid, Spain

Received 15 February 2015; Revised 17 April 2015; Accepted 28 April 2015

Academic Editor: Andrea Romigi

Copyright © 2015 F. Javier Moreno-Martínez and Inmaculada C. Rodríguez-Rojo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. A. Bayles and C. K. Tomoeda, “Confrontation naming impairment in dementia,” Brain & Language, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 98–114, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. J. Moreno-Martínez, “A review of main task used to assess semantic impairment in Alzheimer’s disease,” Acción Psicológica, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 57–68, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. G. W. Humphreys, M. J. Riddoch, and P. T. Quinlan, “Cascade processes in picture identification,” Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 5, pp. 67–103, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. J. Riddoch and G. W. Humphreys, “A case of integrative visual agnosia,” Brain, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 1431–1462, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Riddoch and G. W. Humphreys, “Picture naming,” in Visual Object Processing: A Cognitive Neuropsychological Approach, G. W. Humphreys and M. J. Riddoch, Eds., pp. 107–143, Erlbaum, London, UK, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  6. I. Biederman, “Recognition-by-components: a theory of human image understanding,” Psychological Review, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 115–147, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Marr and H. K. Nishihara, “Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of three-dimensional shapes,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological sciences, vol. 200, no. 1140, pp. 269–294, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Tanaka, D. Weiskopf, and P. Williams, “The role of color in high-level vision,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 211–215, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. Biederman and G. Ju, “Surface versus edge-based determinants of visual recognition,” Cognitive Psychology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 38–64, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. W. Tanaka and L. M. Presnell, “Color diagnosticity in object recognition,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 1140–1153, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. Bramão, A. Reis, K. M. Petersson, and L. Faísca, “The role of color information on object recognition: a review and meta-analysis,” Acta Psychologica, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 244–253, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Rossion and G. Pourtois, “Revisiting Snodgrass and Vanderwart's object pictorial set: the role of surface detail in basic-level object recognition,” Perception, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 217–236, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Bisiach, “Perceptual factors in the pathogenesis of anomia,” Cortex, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 90–95, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. K. R. Laws, R. L. Adlington, T. M. Gale, F. J. Moreno-Martínez, and G. Sartori, “A meta-analytic review of category naming in Alzheimer's disease,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2674–2682, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. C. Silveri, A. Daniele, L. Giustolisi, and G. Gainotti, “Dissociation between knowledge of living and nonliving things in dementia of the Alzheimer type,” Neurology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 545–546, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. M. Gale, K. Irvine, K. R. Laws, and S. Ferrissey, “The naming profile in Alzheimer patients parallels that of elderly controls,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 565–574, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. J. Moreno-Martínez, M. Goñi-Imízcoz, and M. B. Spitznagel, “Domain or not domain? That is the question: longitudinal semantic deterioration in Alzheimer's disease,” Brain & Cognition, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 89–95, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. J. Moreno-Martínez and K. R. Laws, “An attenuation of the ‘normal’ category effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a review and bootstrap analysis,” Brain & Cognition, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 167–173, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. J. Moreno-Martínez and K. R. Laws, “No category specificity in Alzheimer’s disease: a normal aging effect,” Neuropsychology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 485–490, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. J. Moreno-Martínez and P. R. Montoro, “Longitudinal patterns of fluency impairment in dementia: the role of domain and ‘nuisance variables’,” Aphasiology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1389–1399, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. J. Moreno-Martínez, A. Tallón-Barranco, and A. Frank-García, “Alzheimer's disease, category-specific impairment and relevant variables in object naming,” Revista de Neurología, vol. 44, pp. 129–133, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  22. L. J. Tippett, S. L. Meier, K. Blackwood, and C. Diaz-Asper, “Category specific deficits in Alzheimer's disease: fact or artefact?” Cortex, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 907–920, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Montanes, M. C. Goldblum, and F. Boller, “The naming impairment of living and nonliving items in Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Chainay and V. Rosenthal, “Naming and picture recognition in probable Alzheimer's disease: effects of color, generic category, familiarity, visual complexity, and shape similarity,” Brain and Cognition, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 403–405, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. D. Zannino, R. Perri, C. Caltagirone, and G. A. Carlesimo, “Category-specific naming deficit in Alzheimer's disease: the effect of a display by domain interaction,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1832–1839, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. L. Adlington, K. R. Laws, and T. M. Gale, “Visual processing in Alzheimer's disease: surface detail and colour fail to aid object identification,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 2574–2583, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. R. Laws, “‘Illusions of normality’: a methodological critique of category-specific naming,” Cortex, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 842–851, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. R. Laws, T. M. Gale, V. C. Leeson, and J. R. Crawford, “When is category specific in Alzheimer's disease?” Cortex, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 452–463, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. R. Laws, R. L. Adlington, F. J. Moreno-Martinez, and T. M. Gale, Category-Specificity: Evidence for Modularity of Mind, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2010.
  30. E. Funnell and J. Sheridan, “Categories of knowledge? Unfamiliar aspects of living and nonliving things,” Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 135–153, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. D. Gaffan and C. A. Heywood, “A spurious category-specific visual agnosia for living things in normal human and nonhuman primates,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 118–128, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Stewart, A. J. Parkin, and N. M. Hunkin, “Naming impairments following recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis: category-specific?” The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A: Human Experimental Psychology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 261–284, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. W. Humphreys and E. M. E. Forde, “Hierarchies, similarity, and interactivity in object recognition: ‘category-specific’ neuropsychological deficits,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 453–509, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. S. Cree and K. McRae, “Analyzing the factors underlying the structure and computation of the meaning of chipmunk, cherry, chisel, cheese, and cello (and many other such concrete nouns),” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 163–201, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. D. Zannino, R. Perri, P. Pasqualetti, C. Caltagirone, and G. A. Carlesimo, “Analysis of the semantic representations of living and nonliving concepts: a normative study,” Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 515–540, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, “‘Mini-Mental State’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 12, pp. 189–198, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  37. R. Blesa, M. Pujol, M. Aguilar et al., “Clinical validity of the ‘mini-mental state’ for Spanish speaking communities,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1150–1157, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. McKhann, D. Drachman, M. Folstein, R. Katzman, D. Price, and E. Stadlan, “Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's disease,” Neurology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 939–944, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Text Revision, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000, (Spanish translation: Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales. Texto revisado. Barcelona, Spain, Masson, 2002).
  40. F. J. Moreno-Martínez, P. R. Montoro, and K. R. Laws, “A set of high quality colour images with Spanish norms for seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: the Nombela naming test,” Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 293–327, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Barbarotto, E. Capitani, and M. Laiacona, “Naming deficit in herpes simplex encephalitis,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 272–280, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Laiacona, R. Barbarotto, and E. Capitani, “Semantic category dissociations in naming: is there a gender effect in Alzheimer's disease?” Neuropsychologia, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 407–419, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Marra, M. Ferraccioli, and G. Gainotti, “Gender-related dissociations of categorical fluency in normal subjects and in subjects with Alzheimer's disease,” Neuropsychology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 207–211, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. J. Moreno-Martínez, K. R. Laws, and J. Schulz, “The impact of dementia, age and sex on category fluency: greater deficits in women with Alzheimer's disease,” Cortex, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1256–1264, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. R. Crawford and D. C. Howell, “Comparing an individual's test score against norms derived from small samples,” Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 482–486, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. Brousseau and L. Buchanan, “Semantic category effect and emotional valence in female university students,” Brain and Language, vol. 90, no. 1–3, pp. 241–248, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. H. Filliter, P. A. McMullen, and D. Westwood, “Manipulability and living/non-living category effects on object identification,” Brain and Cognition, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 61–65, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. R. Laws, “Gender affects naming latencies for living and nonliving things: implications for familiarity,” Cortex, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 729–733, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. R. Laws, “Category-specific naming errors in normal subjects: the influence of evolution and experience,” Brain and Language, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 123–133, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. R. Laws, “Category-specific naming and modality-specific imagery,” Brain and Cognition, vol. 48, no. 2-3, pp. 418–420, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. R. Laws, V. C. Leeson, and T. M. Gale, “The effect of ‘masking’ on picture naming,” Cortex, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 137–147, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. R. Laws and C. Neve, “A ‘normal’ category-specific advantage for naming living things,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1263–1269, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. McKenna and R. Parry, “Category and modality deficits of semantic memory in patients with left hemisphere pathology,” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 283–305, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. Perri, G. A. Carlesimo, G. D. Zannino et al., “Intentional and automatic measures of specific-category effect in the semantic impairment of patients with Alzheimer's disease,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1509–1522, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. D. Zannino, R. Perri, G. A. Carlesimo, P. Pasqualetti, and C. Caltagirone, “Category-specific impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease as a function of disease severity: a cross-sectional investigation,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 2268–2279, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. A. Armstrong, “Alzheimer's disease and the eye,” Journal of Optometry, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 103–111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Rizzo, S. W. Anderson, J. Dawson, and M. Nawrot, “Vision and cognition in Alzheimer's disease,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1157–1169, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Cronin-Golomb, S. Corkin, J. F. Rizzo, J. Cohen, J. H. Growdon, and K. S. Banks, “Visual dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: relation to normal aging,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 41–52, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Cronin-Golomb, S. Corkin, and J. H. Growdon, “Visual dysfunction predicts cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 168–176, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Binetti, S. F. Cappa, E. Magni, A. Padovani, A. Bianchetti, and M. Trabucchi, “Disorders of visual and spatial perception in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 777, no. 1, pp. 221–225, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. J. Mitchell, “A meta-analysis of the accuracy of the mini-mental state examination in the detection of dementia and mild cognitive impairment,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 411–431, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. F. J. Moreno-Martínez and I. C. Rodríguez-Rojo, “The Nombela 2.0 semantic battery: an updated Spanish instrument for the study of semantic processing,” Neurocase, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. M.-F. Beauvois and B. Saillant, “Optic aphasia for colours and colour agnosia: a distinction between visual and visuo-verbal impairments in the processing of colours,” Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–48, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Hart Jr. and B. Gordon, “Neural subsystems for object knowledge,” Nature, vol. 359, no. 6390, pp. 60–64, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. G. D. Zannino, R. Perri, G. Salamone, C. Di Lorenzo, C. Caltagirone, and G. A. Carlesimo, “Manipulating color and other visual information influences picture naming at different levels of processing: evidence from Alzheimer subjects and normal controls,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 2571–2578, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. R. Hodges, D. P. Salmon, and N. Butters, “The nature of the naming deficit in Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease,” Brain, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 1547–1558, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. F. J. Moreno-Martínez and P. R. Montoro, “An ecological alternative to Snodgrass & Vanderwart: 360 high quality colour images with norms for seven psycholinguistic variables,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e37527, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Laiacona, C. Luzzatti, G. Zonca, C. Guarnaschelli, and E. Capitani, “Lexical and semantic factors influencing picture naming in aphasia,” Brain and Cognition, vol. 46, no. 1-2, pp. 184–187, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. H. Chertkow and D. Bub, “Semantic memory loss in dementia of Alzheimer's type. What do various measures measure?” Brain, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 397–417, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Martin and P. Fedio, “Word production and comprehension in Alzheimer's disease: the breakdown of semantic knowledge,” Brain & Language, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 124–141, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. P. Salmon, N. Butters, and A. S. Chan, “The deterioration of semantic memory in Alzheimer's disease,” Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 108–116, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. R. Chamberlain, A. D. Blackwell, P. J. Nathan et al., “Differential cognitive deterioration in dementia: a two year longitudinal study,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 125–136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. Garrard, M. A. Lambon Ralph, P. C. Watson, J. Powis, K. Patterson, and J. R. Hodges, “Longitudinal profiles of semantic impairment for living and nonliving concepts in dementia of Alzheimer's type,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 892–909, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. F. J. Moreno-Martínez, K. R. Laws, M. Goñi-Imízcoz, and A. Sánchez-Martínez, “The longitudinal neurodegenerative impact of Alzheimer's disease on picture naming,” in Alzheimer Disease in the Middle-Aged, F. Columbus, Ed., pp. 191–207, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  75. K. R. Laws, T. M. Gale, F. J. Moreno-Martínez, R. L. Adlington, K. Irvine, and S. Sthanakiya, “Category-specific semantics in Alzheimer's dementia and normal aging?” in Alzheimer's Disease Research Compendium, pp. 143–164, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  76. A. Caramazza and J. R. Shelton, “Domain-specific knowledge systems in the brain: the animate-inanimate distinction,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–34, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus