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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2015, Article ID 981548, 10 pages
Research Article

Confrontation Naming and Reading Abilities at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
2Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, IRCCS “C. Mondino” Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
3Department of Education, University of San Marino, Montegiardino, San Marino
4Data Science Lab, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods, University of Milan, 2012 Milan, Italy

Received 11 October 2014; Revised 12 April 2015; Accepted 20 April 2015

Academic Editor: Veit Roessner

Copyright © 2015 Chiara Luoni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Confrontation naming tasks are useful in the assessment of children with learning and language disorders. Objectives. The aims of this study were (1) providing longitudinal data on confrontation naming; (2) investigating the role of socioeconomic status (SES), intelligence, age, and gender in confrontation naming; (3) identifying relationship between confrontation naming and reading abilities (fluency, accuracy, and comprehension). Method. A five-year longitudinal investigation of confrontation naming (i.e., the Boston Naming Test (BNT)) in a nonclinical sample of Italian primary school children was conducted (), testing them at the end of each school year, to assess nonverbal intelligence, confrontation naming, and reading abilities. Results. Performance on the BNT emerged as a function of IQ and SES. Significant correlations between confrontation naming and reading abilities, especially comprehension, were found; BNT scores correlated better with reading fluency than with reading accuracy. Conclusions. The longitudinal data obtained in this study are discussed with regard to reading abilities, intelligence, age, gender, and socioeconomic status.