Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2016, Article ID 7036415, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7036415
Clinical Study

The Interactive Relationship between Pain, Psychosis, and Agitation in People with Dementia: Results from a Cluster-Randomised Clinical Trial

1Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, Centre for Elderly and Nursing Home Medicine, University of Bergen, 5018 Bergen, Norway
2Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands
3Municipality of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway

Received 8 January 2016; Accepted 29 March 2016

Academic Editor: Marina De Tommaso

Copyright © 2016 Torstein F. Habiger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Selbæk, K. Engedal, J. Š. Benth, and S. Bergh, “The course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing-home patients with dementia over a 53-month follow-up period,” International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. U. Zuidema, E. Derksen, F. R. J. Verhey, and R. T. C. M. Koopmans, “Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of Dutch nursing home patients with dementia,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 632–638, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Hollingworth, M. L. Hamshere, V. Moskvina et al., “Four components describe behavioral symptoms in 1,120 individuals with late-onset Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 1348–1354, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Selbæk and K. Engedal, “Stability of the factor structure of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in a 31-month follow-up study of a large sample of nursing-home patients with dementia,” International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 62–73, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. B. Wetzels, S. U. Zuidema, J. F. M. de Jonghe, F. R. J. Verhey, and R. T. C. M. Koopmans, “Course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in residents with dementia in nursing homes over 2-year period,” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1054–1065, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S.-T. Cheng, T. Kwok, and L. C. W. Lam, “Neuropsychiatric symptom clusters of Alzheimer's disease in Hong Kong Chinese: prevalence and confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory,” International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1465–1473, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Ballard, A. Corbett, R. Chitramohan, and D. Aarsland, “Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer's disease: controversies and possible solutions,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Ballard, M. L. Hanney, M. Theodoulou et al., “The dementia antipsychotic withdrawal trial (DART-AD): long-term follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. S. Husebo, C. Ballard, R. Sandvik, O. B. Nilsen, and D. Aarsland, “Efficacy of treating pain to reduce behavioural disturbances in residents of nursing homes with dementia: cluster randomised clinical trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 343, no. 7816, Article ID d4065, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. S. Husebo, C. Ballard, J. Cohen-Mansfield, R. Seifert, and D. Aarsland, “The response of agitated behavior to pain management in persons with dementia,” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 708–717, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. S. Husebo, C. Ballard, F. Fritze, R. K. Sandvik, and D. Aarsland, “Efficacy of pain treatment on mood syndrome in patients with dementia: a randomized clinical trial,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 828–836, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. P. Achterberg, G. Gambassi, H. Finne-Soveri et al., “Pain in European long-term care facilities: cross-national study in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands,” Pain, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 70–74, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. K. Sandvik, G. Selbaek, R. Seifert et al., “Impact of a stepwise protocol for treating pain on pain intensity in nursing home patients with dementia: a cluster randomized trial,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1490–1500, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. S. Husebo, L. I. Strand, R. Moe-Nilssen, S. BorgeHusebo, D. Aarsland, and A. E. Ljunggren, “Who suffers most? Dementia and pain in nursing home patients: a cross-sectional study,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 427–433, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Corbett, B. Husebo, M. Malcangio et al., “Assessment and treatment of pain in people with dementia,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 264–274, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. P. Achterberg, M. J. C. Pieper, A. H. van Dalen-Kok et al., “Pain management in patients with dementia,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 8, pp. 1471–1482, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Flo, C. Gulla, and B. S. Husebo, “Effective pain management in patients with dementia: benefits beyond pain?” Drugs & Aging, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 863–871, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. H. van Dalen-Kok, M. J. Pieper, M. W. de Waal, A. Lukas, B. S. Husebo, and W. P. Achterberg, “Association between pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and physical function in dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BMC Geriatrics, vol. 15, no. 1, article 49, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Tosato, A. Lukas, H. G. van der Roest et al., “Association of pain with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms among nursing home residents with cognitive impairment: results from the SHELTER study,” Pain, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 305–310, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Cohen-Mansfield, L. Taylor, and P. Werner, “Delusions and hallucinations in an adult day care population. A longitudinal study,” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 104–121, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Abdulla, N. Adams, M. Bone et al., “Guidance on the management of pain in older people,” Age and ageing, vol. 42, supplement 1, pp. i1–i57, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. American Geriatrics Society, “Pharmacological management of persistent pain in older persons,” Pain Medicine, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1062–1683, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. W. P. Achterberg, C. M. de Ruiter, C. M. de Weerd-Spaetgens, P. Geels, A. Horikx, and M. M. Verduijn, “Multidisciplinary guideline ‘Recognition and treatment of chronic pain in vulnerable elderly people’,” Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, vol. 155, no. 35, Article ID A4606, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. C. E. Durán, M. Azermai, and R. H. Vander Stichele, “Systematic review of anticholinergic risk scales in older adults,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 1485–1496, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. I. Siafarikas and U. Preuss, “Delirium and dementia,” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 492–501, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Reisberg, “Functional assessment staging (FAST),” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 653–659, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, “‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Cohen-Mansfield, M. S. Marx, and A. S. Rosenthal, “A description of agitation in a nursing home,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. M77–M84, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Selbæk, Ø. Kirkevold, O. H. Sommer, and K. Engedal, “The reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, nursing home version (NPI-NH),” International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 375–382, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Margallo-Lana, A. Swann, J. O'Brien et al., “Prevalence and pharmacological management of behavioural and psychological symptoms amongst dementia sufferers living in care environments,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. S. Husebo, L. I. Strand, R. Moe-Nilssen, S. B. Husebo, A. L. Snow, and A. E. Ljunggren, “Mobilization-Observation-Behavior-Intensity-Dementia Pain Scale (MOBID): development and validation of a nurse-administered pain assessment tool for use in dementia,” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 67–80, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. S. Husebo, L. I. Strand, R. Moe-Nilssen, S. B. Husebo, and A. E. Ljunggren, “Pain in older persons with severe dementia. Psychometric properties of the Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia (MOBID-2) pain scale in a clinical setting,” Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 380–391, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. S. Husebo, R. Ostelo, and L. I. Strand, “The MOBID-2 pain scale: Reliability and responsiveness to pain in patients with dementia,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1419–1430, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. I. Mahoney and D. W. Barthel, “Functional evaluation: the barthel index,” Maryland State Medical Journal, vol. 14, pp. 61–65, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Corbett, B. S. Husebo, W. P. Achterberg, D. Aarsland, A. Erdal, and E. Flo, “The importance of pain management in older people with dementia,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 139–148, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. J. C. Pieper, A. H. van Dalen-Kok, A. L. Francke et al., “Interventions targeting pain or behaviour in dementia: a systematic review,” Ageing Research Reviews, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1042–1055, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus