Table 2: Overview of exoskeleton upper limb rehabilitation robots.

GroupsDevicesResearchersDOFsDriving modesControl strategiesTraining modeExperimental subjectFunctional testingClinical scale

Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotRUPERTUniversity of Arizona [2830]4Pneumatic driveForce control
Impedance control
Passive modeEight healthy subjects and two stroke patientsMotion tasksFugl-Meyer
Wolf Motor Test improved
Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotCADEN-7University of Washington [31, 32]7Motor drive
Line drive
Position controlPassive modeSix subjects\ADLS improved
Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotT-WREXThe university of California [34, 35]5Pneumatic driveForce controlActive mode
Passive mode
Five chronic stroke patientsSelf-control experimentFugl-Meyer improved
Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotMAHI Exo IIRice University [37]5Motor drivePosition controlActive mode///
Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotIntelliArmNorthwestern University [38]10Motor driveForce/Position controlActive mode
Passive mode
Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotMEDARMQueen University [39]6Line drivePosition controlPassive mode///
Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotMARSE ETSMcGill University [4042]7Motor driveEMG signal controlActive mode///
Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotARMinThe royal Swiss institute of technology [43]6Motor driveForce control
Impedance control
Active mode
Passive mode
A healthy subjectTraction movement/
Exoskeleton rehabilitation robotARMin IIThe royal Swiss Institute of Technology [44, 45]7Motor driveForce controlActive mode
Passive mode
Eight hemiplegic Three incomplete spinal cord injured subjectsVirtual tasksADLS improved