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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 8584653, 8 pages
Review Article

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Cognition, and Multiple Sclerosis: An Overview

1Department of Speech and Language Therapy, Higher Educational Institute of Epirus, Ioannina, Greece
2Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, University of Patras Medical School, 26504 Patras, Greece
3Department of Neurology, University of Thessaly Medical School, Larisa, Greece
4Department of Neurology, University of Patras Medical School, 26504 Patras, Greece

Correspondence should be addressed to Grigorios Nasios

Received 16 July 2017; Accepted 7 December 2017; Published 18 January 2018

Academic Editor: Guido Rubboli

Copyright © 2018 Grigorios Nasios et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects cognition in the majority of patients. A major aspect of the disease is brain volume loss (BVL), present in all phases and types (relapsing and progressive) of the disease and linked to both motor and cognitive disabilities. Due to the lack of effective pharmacological treatments for cognition, cognitive rehabilitation and other nonpharmacological interventions such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have recently emerged and their potential role in functional connectivity is studied. With recently developed advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques, changes related to alterations of the brain’s functional connectivity can be detected. In this overview, we focus on the brain’s functional reorganization in MS, theoretical and practical aspects of rTMS utilization in humans, and its potential therapeutic role in treating cognitively impaired MS patients.