Apple Procyanidins Suppress Amyloid -Protein Aggregation
Procyanidins suppress Aβ aggregation in vitro. (a) Dose-dependent suppression of Aβ42 aggregation by polyphenols as indicated by thioflavin-T (Th-T) analysis. Various concentrations of apple polyphenol (AP), procyanidins (PC), and monomers (MN) were incubated with Aβ42 (final concentration 20 μM) for 48 hours. (Differences from 0 hour (baseline), ns: not significant (P < 0.01)). (b, c) Time-dependent Aβ42 aggregation in the presence of polyphenols as indicated by the Th-T assay. (b) Aβ42 (20 μM) was incubated with AP (18.0 μg/mL), PC (11.5 μg/mL), and MN (6.5 μg/mL). (c) Aβ42 (20 μM) was incubated with AP (1.0 μg/mL), PC (0.65 μg/mL), and MN (0.35 μg/mL). (differences compared to vehicle groups, (Dunnett's test)). Values are the means ± s.e.m., n = 5.