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Biochemistry Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1738237, 14 pages
Research Article

Influenza A Virus and Influenza B Virus Can Induce Apoptosis via Intrinsic or Extrinsic Pathways and Also via NF-κB in a Time and Dose Dependent Manner

1Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), University of Sadat City, Sadat City 32897, Egypt
2Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 35527, Egypt
3Central Public Health Laboratories (CPHL), Cairo 11613, Egypt

Received 28 October 2015; Accepted 7 February 2016

Academic Editor: Andrei Surguchov

Copyright © 2016 Ibrahim El-Sayed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Influenza viruses are able to cause annual epidemics and pandemics due to their mutation rates and reassortment capabilities leading to antigenic shifts and drifts. To identify host response to influenza A and B viruses on A549 and MDCK II cells at low and high MOIs, expressions of MxA and caspases 3, 8, and 9 and BAD, TNFα, and IκBα genes were measured in the cells supernatants. H1N1 and H3N2 prefer to initially enhance the intrinsic pathway, determined by higher caspase 9 activity in MDCK II cells compared to caspase 8 activity and vice versa in A549 cells at different MOIs, while INF B prefers extrinsic pathway in A549 cells according to significant low or undetectable caspase 9 activity and high activity of caspase 8 but also can induce intrinsic pathway in MDCK II cells as determined by significant low or undetectable activity of caspase 8 and high caspase 9 activity at different MOIs; the considerable MxA expression was found in influenza A and B viruses infected A549 and MDCK II cells at low MOIs. In conclusion, influenza A and B viruses induced extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis in parallel, and the induction was associated with viral infection in a dose dependent manner.