Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Biochemistry Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 7497614, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7497614
Research Article

Evaluation of Early Markers of Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
2Department of Diabetology and Metabolic Disease, AOU-Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy

Received 13 November 2015; Revised 28 December 2015; Accepted 10 January 2016

Academic Editor: Tzi B. Ng

Copyright © 2016 Pierina De Muro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus, vol. 844 of Technical Report Series, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1994.
  2. M. I. Harris, R. Klein, T. A. Welborn, and M. W. Knuiman, “Onset of NIDDM occurs at least 4–7 yr before clinical diagnosis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 815–819, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. I. M. Stratton, E. M. Kohner, S. J. Aldington et al., “UKPDS 50: risk factors for incidence and progression of retinopathy in Type II diabetes over 6 years from diagnosis,” Diabetologia, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 156–163, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. J. Sarnak, A. S. Levey, A. C. Schoolwerth et al., “Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 17, pp. 2154–2169, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. L. Meyers, S. D. Candrilli, and B. Kovacs, “Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal impairment in a large outpatient electronic medical records database: rates of diagnosis and antihyperglycemic medication dose adjustment,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 133–143, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Deckert, B. Feldt-Rasmussen, R. Djurup, and M. Deckert, “Glomerular size and charge selectivity in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Kidney International, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 100–106, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. De Muro, P. Fresu, M. Formato et al., “Urinary glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan excretion in normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 290–296, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. J. Lepedda, G. Nieddu, S. Rocchiccioli, P. Fresu, P. De Muro, and M. Formato, “Development of a method for urine bikunin/urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) quantitation and structural characterization: application to type 1 and type 2 diabetes,” Electrophoresis, vol. 34, no. 22-23, pp. 3227–3233, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. J. Lepedda, L. Fancellu, E. Zinellu et al., “Urine bikunin as a marker of renal impairment in Fabry's disease,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 205948, 9 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. E. Gilbert and M. E. Cooper, “The tubulointerstitium in progressive diabetic kidney disease: more than an aftermath of glomerular injury?” Kidney International, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1627–1637, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Bolignano, G. Coppolino, A. Romeo et al., “Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) reflects iron status in haemodialysis patients,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 3398–3403, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. De Muro, R. Faedda, M. Formato et al., “Urinary glycosaminoglycans in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 125–130, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Fioretto, M. Mauer, E. Brocco et al., “Patterns of renal injury in NIDDM patients with microalbuminuria,” Diabetologia, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1569–1576, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. C. Gerstein, J. F. E. Mann, Q. Yi et al., “Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 4, pp. 421–426, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Morita, A. Yoshimura, and K. Kimata, “The role of heparan sulfate in the glomerular basement membrane,” Kidney International, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 247–248, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. Deckert, B. Feldt-Rasmussen, K. Borch-Johnsen, T. Jensen, and A. Kofoed-Enevoldsen, “Albuminuria reflects widespread vascular damage. The Steno hypothesis,” Diabetologia, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 219–226, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. R. V. Iozzo, I. R. Cohen, S. Grassel, and A. D. Murdoch, “The biology of perlecan: the multifaceted heparan sulphate proteoglycan of basement membranes and pericellular matrices,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 302, no. 3, pp. 625–639, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. G. Hagen, A. F. Michael, and R. J. Butkowski, “Immunochemical and biochemical evidence for distinct basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 268, no. 10, pp. 7261–7269, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Halfter, S. Dong, B. Schurer, and G. J. Cole, “Collagen XVIII is a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 39, pp. 25404–25412, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Rossi, H. Morita, R. Sormunen et al., “Heparan sulfate chains of perlecan are indispensable in the lens capsule but not in the kidney,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 236–245, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Björnson Granqvist, K. Ebefors, M. A. Saleem, P. W. Mathieson, B. Haraldsson, and J. Sörensson Nyström, “Podocyte proteoglycan synthesis is involved in the development of nephrotic syndrome,” The American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, vol. 291, no. 4, pp. F722–F730, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. F. Van Det, J. Van Den Born, J. T. Tamsma et al., “Effects of high glucose on the production of heparan sulfate proteoglycan by mesangial and epithelial cells,” Kidney International, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1079–1089, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Yokoyama, K. Sato, M. Okudaira et al., “Serum and urinary concentrations of heparan sulfate in patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Kidney International, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 650–658, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. V. McLennan, D. K. Yue, and J. R. Turtle, “Effect of glucose on matrix metalloproteinase activity in mesangial cells,” Nephron, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 293–298, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Ishimura, Y. Nishizawa, S. Shoji, and H. Morii, “Serum type III, IV collagens and TIMP in patients with type II diabetes mellitus,” Life Sciences, vol. 58, no. 16, pp. 1331–1337, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Coles, T. Diercks, B. Muehlenweg et al., “The solution structure and dynamics of human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 289, no. 1, pp. 139–157, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Yan, N. Borregaard, L. Kjeldsen, and M. A. Moses, “The high molecular weight urinary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is a complex of gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Modulation of MMP-9 activity by NGAL,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 40, pp. 37258–37265, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Y. Donath, “Targeting inflammation in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: time to start,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 465–476, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Balduyck, D. Albani, M. Jourdain et al., “Inflammation-induced systemic proteolysis of inter-alpha-inhibitor in plasma from patients with sepsis,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 188–198, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Balduyck and J. Mizon, “Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor and its plasma and urine derivatives,” Annales de Biologie Clinique, vol. 49, pp. 273–281, 1991. View at Google Scholar