Table of Contents
Biotechnology Research International
Volume 2011, Article ID 274693, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/274693
Review Article

Biosynthesis and Virulent Behavior of Lipids Produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: LAM and Cord Factor: An Overview

Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR), Delhi University Campus, Mall Road, Delhi 110007, India

Received 18 August 2010; Revised 21 October 2010; Accepted 29 November 2010

Academic Editor: Gabriel A. Monteiro

Copyright © 2011 Rajni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis disease, which has developed a myriad of exceptional features contributing to its survival within the hostile environment of host cell. Unique cell wall structure with high lipid content plays an imperative role in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. Cell wall components of MTB such as lipoarabinomannan and Trehalose dimycolate (cord factor) are virulent in nature apart from its virulence genes. Virulent effect of these factors on host cells reduces host cell immunity. LAM has been known to inhibit phagosome maturation by inhibiting the Ca2+/calmodulin phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase hvps34 pathways. Moreover, TDM (Trehalose dimycolate) also inhibits fusion between phospholipid vesicles and migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The objective of this paper is to understand the virulence of LAM and cord factor on host cell which might be helpful to design an effective drug against tuberculosis.