Biotechnology Research International / 2012 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Biotechnological Tools for Environmental Sustainability: Prospects and Challenges for Environments in Nigeria—A Standard Review

Table 3

Biomarkers and their applications

Biomarker typeUsesReference

Chlorophyll content Zea mays L.Detection of level of hydrocarbon contamination of agricultural soil[11]

Sensitivity of Nitrobacter sp.Based on the effect of crude oil on oxidation of nitrite to nitrate[41]

Azotobacter sp. Used in evaluating the effect of oil spill in aquatic environment[42]

Algae/plant steranes and bacteria hopanesSteranes formed as components of crude oil and hopanes used to determine the source rock that generated a crude oil[43]

Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in fish in vivoIndicates exposure of fish to planar-halogenated hydrocarbons (PAHs) by receptor-mediated induction of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase exposed to PAHs and similar contaminants[44, 45]

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