Critical Care Research and Practice / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Risk Factors for Development of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Table 1

Description of studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis.

First author, year Setting/countryStudy design/number of centersYears of enrollmentTotal sample, % menAKI definitionIncidence of AKI in the studySeverity of disease score, mean standard deviation (SD)

Hilberman 1979 [43]Surgical-Cardiac/USAPC/11977-1978226/NRNeed for RRT of peritoneal dialysis or BUN > 70 mg/dL or GFR < 30 mL/min/m214.6%NR
Wilkins and Faragher 1983 [53]Mixed/UKHC/11976–1979475/51Creatinine > 180  mol/L and
BUN > 8 mmol/L for >24 h
23%NR
Corwin 1989 [37]Surgical-Cardiac/USACC/1198584/NR Creatinine 50% of baselineN/ANR
Boucher 1990 [32]Surgical-Trauma/USACC/11988-1989184/76 Creatinine 0.5 mg/dL from baseline or creatinine > 50% baselineN/AISS ( )
Groeneveld 1991 [42]Medical/NetherlandsHC/11986-1987487/52 Creatinine 3.2 mg/dL or creatinine more than 2 times the baseline16%NR
Tran 1994 [51]Surgical-Trauma/NetherlandsHC/11985–1989206/73 Creatinine 3.2 mg/dL or creatinine more than 2 times the baseline15%ISS ( )
Zanardo 1994 [54]Surgical-Cardiac/ItalyPC/11989–1999734/68 Creatinine 2.5 mg/dL3.7%NR
Ward 1996 [52]Medical/USAHC/1NR102/53 Creatinine 0.5 mg/dL from baseline17.6%APACHE II
( )
Vivino 1998 [5]Surgical-Trauma/ItalyPC/11991–1994153/80 Creatinine 2 mg/dL or creatinine > 20% of baseline31%ISS ( )
Mangano 1998 [48]Surgical-Cardiac/USAPC/241991–19932,222/76 Creatinine > 177  mol/L or creatinine > 62  mol/L from baseline or need for RRT7.7%NR
Conlon 1999 [36]Surgical-Cardiac/USAPC/11995–19972,672/64 Creatinine 1 mg/dL from baseline8%NR
De Mendonça 2000 [4]Mixed/16 countriesPC/40May 19951411/NR Creatinine 3.5 mg/dL and/or urine output < 500 mL/24 hours24.7%NR
Ficher 2002 [40]Surgical-Cardiac/GermanyCC/11999-2000143/73 Creatinine 0.5 mg/dL from baseline or RRTN/ANR
Clermont 2002 [35]Mixed/USAPC/1NR1530/NR Creatinine 0.5 mg/dL if baseline 1.9 mg/dL, or creatinine 1 mg/dL if baseline 2 to 4.9 mg/dL, or creatinine 1.5 mg/dL if baseline 5 mg/dL17.2%APACHE III
( )
Bove 2004 [33]Surgical-Cardiac/ItalyPC/11998–20025,068/67 Creatinine 100% from baseline3.4%NR
Bahar 2005 [30]Surgical-Cardiac/TurkeyHC/11991–200114,437 Creatinine 100% from baseline 24 hours after surgery or sustained urine output < 20 mL/hour1.2%NR
Chawla 2005 [34]Mixed/USAPC/12002-2003194/53 Creatinine > 75% from baseline if creatinine 2 mg/dL or creatinine > 50% from baseline if creatinine > 2 mg/dL18%APACHE II
( )
Loef 2005 [46]Surgical-Cardiac/NetherlandsHC/11991843/73 Creatinine 25% of baseline creatinine during first week after surgery17.2%NR
Mataloun 2006 [49]Mixed, BrazilPC/11999-2000221/46 Creatinine 1.5 mg/dL19%APACHE II
( )
Hoste 2006 [6]Mixed/USAHC/12000-20015,383/51RIFLE67%APACHE III
Median (IQR)
(56, 41–73)
Landoni 2007 [45]Surgical-Cardiac/ItalyPC/11998–20033,103/84 Creatinine > 100% from baseline2.2%NR
Barrantes 2008 [31]Medical/USAHC/12005381/57 Creatinine 0.3 mg/dL or 50% from baseline and/or an episode of < 0.5 mL/Kg/hr urine output for > 6 hours despite fluid challenge of 500 mL of normal saline31.5%APACHE II
( )
Bagshaw 2008 [28]Mixed/Australia and New ZealandHC/572000–2005120,123/59RIFLE (only cases in first 24 hours of admission), modified urine output criteria36%APACHE II
( )
Bagshaw 2008 [29]Surgical-Trauma/Australia and New ZealandHC/572000–20059,449/70RIFLE (only cases in first 24 hours of admission), modified urine output criteria18.1%APACHE II
( )
Dasta 2008 [38]Surgical-Cardiothoracic/USANCC/11998–20023,741/63RIFLE creatinine criterion6.9%APACHE III
( )
Abelha 2009 [27]Surgical-NonCardiac/PortugalHC/12006–20081,166/65 Creatinine 0.3 mg/dL or 50% from baseline and/or an episode of < 0.5 mL/Kg/hr urine output for >6 hours despite a ≥500 ml fluid challenge7.5%APACHE II median (IQR)
(8, 5 to 11)
De Ara jo Brito 2009 [39]Surgical-Cardiac/BrazilHC/12003–2006186/59 Creatinine > 50% from baseline if creatinine > 1.3 mg/dL or creatinine > 0.5 mg/dL from baseline if creatinine < 1.3 mg/dL, or need of RRT30.6%NR
Thakar 2009 [50]Mixed/USAHC/1912001–2006325,395/97 Creatinine 0.3 mg/dL from baseline22%NR
Hobson 2009 [44]Surgical-Cardiothoracic/USAHC/11992–20022973/66RIFLE creatinine criterion43%NR
Machado 2009 [47]Surgical-Cardiac/BrazilHC/12003–2008817/70 Creatinine 0.3 mg/dL or 50% from baseline 48.5%EuroSCORE, median (IQR)
1.8 (1.2–3)
Gomes 2010 [41]Surgical-Trauma/PortugalHC/12001–2007436/80RIFLE50%ISS
(27.3 ± 11.4)

AKI: acute kidney injury, SD: standard deviation, BUN: blood urea nitrogen, GFR: glomerular filtration rate, HC: historical cohort, PC: prospective cohort, CC: case-control, NCC: nested case control, RRT: renal replacement therapy, NR: not reported, IQR: interquartile range, ISS: injury severity score, APACHE: acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation score, RIFLE: risk injury failure loss end stage kidney disease criteria, EuroSCORE: European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation.
To convert mol/dL to mg/dL, divide by 88.

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