Child Development Research / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

A New Tool to Explore Children’s Social Competencies: The Preschool Competition Questionnaire

Table 1

Factors including item loadings, averages, and standard deviations ().

Factor loadingMeanSD

Factor 1: Other-referenced competition
 Is angry when does not win at a game (poor loser).7952.461.15
 Contests when another child wins.7932.321.04
 Is envious when the good performance of another child is praised.7912.171.06
 Likes to compare own performance and achievements to those of others.7562.501.17
 Is motivated to win or to come first at games.7073.091.30
 Is angry when another child gets something he/she desires first.7022.791.27
 Is disappointed when does not succeed in achieving own goals.6882.961.07
 Tends to abandon games when not winning.5772.631.05
Factor 2: Task-oriented competition
 Perseveres when confronted with difficult tasks.7853.821.13
 Actively seeks to improve own performance and abilities.7403.601.13
 Is enthusiastic about challenges posed by adult.6413.851.18
 Prefers difficult games.6372.721.05
 Plays according to rules of the game.6314.251.04
 Tolerates compromise as a solution to conflict.5133.741.14
Factor 3: Maintenance of dominance hierarchy
 Objects when another child takes toy away or usurps place.7704.341.21
 Does not let other children grab toys away or usurp place.7683.991.36
 Defends self when attacked by another child.7634.311.30

Notes: the factors, respectively, explain 28.53%, 18.58%, and 12.87% for a total of 59.98% of the variance.
1 The final analysis was conducted using a sample of 597 children.