Child Development Research http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Appearances Are Deceiving: Observing the World as It Looks and How It Really Is—Theory of Mind Performances Investigated in 3-, 4-, and 5-Year-Old Children Thu, 08 Dec 2016 08:06:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/5270924/ Appearance-reality (AR) distinction understanding in preschoolers is worth of further consideration. This also goes for its relationship with false-belief (FB) understanding. This study helped fill these gaps by assessing 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children’s performances on an appearance-reality distinction task and by investigating relationships with unexpected location, deceptive content, and deception comprehension task performances. 91 preschoolers participated in this study divided into 3 groups: (1) 37 children, M-age 3.4 years; (2) 23 children, M-age 4.5 years; (3) 31 children, M-age 5.4 years. A developmental trend was found where appearance-reality distinction understanding was significantly influenced by age. If wrong answers were particularly high by 3-year-old children, they greatly decreased by 4- and 5-year-old children. 3-year-old children also tended to fail in FB tasks; instead 4- and 5-year-old children performed AR tasks better than FB tasks. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed. Lucia Bigozzi, Alessandra Di Cosimo, and Giulia Vettori Copyright © 2016 Lucia Bigozzi et al. All rights reserved. Infants Actively Construct and Update Their Representations of Physical Events: Evidence from Change Detection by 12-Month-Olds Thu, 24 Nov 2016 14:34:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/3102481/ The present research investigates the effects of top-down information on 12-month-olds’ representations of physical events, focusing on their ability to detect an object change across different events. Infants this age typically fail to detect height changes in events with tubes even though they successfully do so in events with covers. In Experiment  1, infants who saw a tube event in which objects did not interact successfully detected a change in an object’s height, suggesting that object interaction affects infants’ categorization of physical events. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the fine-grained process of event representation. In Experiment  2, infants detected the change in the tube event if they were led by pretest exposure to believe that the event was conducted with a cover. In Experiment  3, infants who initially believed so updated their representation if shown a tube before object interaction occurred (but not after). Together, these findings provide new evidence that infants, like older children and adults, actively construct physical events. Whether they notice a change depends on their existing knowledge and the current representation of the event. Su-hua Wang and Elizabeth J. Goldman Copyright © 2016 Su-hua Wang and Elizabeth J. Goldman. All rights reserved. Livelihood of Street Children and the Role of Social Intervention: Insights from Literature Using Meta-Analysis Thu, 17 Nov 2016 11:47:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/3582101/ As studies done by different scholars indicate that the present status of street children is remarkably insightful, this invites us to systematically review the existing literature by using meta-analysis. In this paper 31 studies were reviewed by applying a predetermined set of inclusion and exclusion criteria as part of meta-analysis. These studies were compiled mainly from three continents (Africa, Asia, and Latin America), which are often observed to be diversified economically, politically, socially, and environmentally. Empirical evidences based on data generated from reviewed studies provide a holistic picture on the predominance of male street children among a total sample size of 68014 street children. Working as a daily labourer is considered as the most predominant informal occupation for street children. Empirical evidences suggest that majority of street dwellers were categorized into children working on the street in Africa, while in Asia a sizable proportion of them were abandoned from their house. Interestingly, it suggests that children coming to a street may be due to push factors like coercion by family, lack of access to education, and the existence of displeasing life in Africa, while in Asia children were pushed by family to beg and act as a day labourer and street vendor to assure the livelihood of their abandoned families. Statistical evidence based on odds ratio suggested no association between location of the study region and the characteristics of street children. Analysis of variance results showed that there exists a significant variation within a continent for all four variables (living condition, education, gender, and livelihood strategies). In fact, daily labour was the most acceptable means of livelihood earning and it is followed by street vendor and others. The present condition of street children necessitates social intervention to address the present problems of street dwellers by ensuring sustainable livelihood options among them. Habtamu Wandimu Alem and Arindam Laha Copyright © 2016 Habtamu Wandimu Alem and Arindam Laha. All rights reserved. Type and Duration of Home Activities of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Case Control Study Based on Parents’ Reports Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:10:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/1709314/ Parents of children with specific language impairment (SLI) are advised to promote language development at home. However, it is not known if children with SLI differ from healthy controls in their daily activities. This study collected prospectively information about the home activities of the children with SLI and their matched controls by using parents’ daily reports. Participants were 20 matched pairs. The ages of children in matched pairs were from 6 to 8 years. During one week, parents filled in daily questionnaires of listed home activities. The observed time was between 5 pm and 9.30 pm each day and it was divided into 30-minute scoring periods. Parents of children with SLI reported more varying home activities and fewer activities of playing outdoors than parents of control children. Home activities with literacy or screen time did not show difference between the two groups, and neither did playing table top games. Parents of children with SLI did more overlapping choices when scoring home activities than parents of control children. Children with SLI seemed to spend somewhat less time with home activities that, in particular, may ask for language and social skills and collaboration with peers. Sinikka Hannus, Timo Kauppila, and Kaisa Launonen Copyright © 2016 Sinikka Hannus et al. All rights reserved. Child Welfare Deprivation in Rural Nigeria: A Counting Approach Wed, 28 Sep 2016 14:25:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/6805485/ The study applies the counting approach to explain the deprivation concept among children under 5 years of age using the 2008 DHS data. Five dimensions of deprivation were used: safe drinking water, sanitation, housing, health, and nutrition largely recognized in the SDGs. In all, a total of 13561 children were sampled. About half of the children were males with a mean age of 28.27 months old. The assessment of dimensional deprivation showed that children are most deprived in sanitation, health, and access to safe drinking water while they were least deprived in nutrition. The situation is also marked with regional disparities with northern regions reporting higher deprivation rates than the southern regions but this rate was significantly higher in the sanitation dimension across regions. Considering deprivation counts, 33.9% of children suffer from more than three deprivations and approximately 85.2% from at least two deprivations. Child deprivation should be tackled using a holistic approach through social protection programmes to resolve children’s problems in an integrated manner which would in this case be more efficient and effective in safeguarding children’s rights to survival and development. Identifying the children suffering from single and multiple deprivations can help to target the interventions. Olufemi Adebola Popoola and Adetola Adeoti Copyright © 2016 Olufemi Adebola Popoola and Adetola Adeoti. All rights reserved. Ingroup/Outgroup Attitudes and Group Evaluations: The Role of Competition in British Classroom Settings Mon, 26 Sep 2016 12:50:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/8649132/ Children’s intergroup bias is one of the consequences of their readiness to categorise people into ingroups and outgroups, even when groups are assigned arbitrarily. The present study examined the influence of intergroup competition on children’s ingroup and outgroup attitudes developed within the minimal-group setting in British classrooms. One hundred and twelve children in two age groups (6-7- and 9-10-year-olds) were assessed on classification skills and self-esteem before being allocated to one of two colour “teams.” In the experimental condition, children were told that the teams would have a competition after two weeks and teachers made regular use of these teams to organise activities. In the control condition, where no competition ensued, teachers did not refer to “teams.” Then children completed trait attributions to their own-team (ingroup) and other-team (outgroup) members and group evaluations. It was found that children developed positive ingroup bias across conditions, but outgroup negative bias was shown only by 6-7-year-olds in the experimental condition, particularly if they lost the competition, where they evaluated their team more critically. Better classification skills were associated with less negativity towards the outgroup in the experimental condition. Findings are discussed in relation to relevant theoretical premises and particulars of the intergroup context. Virginia L. Lam and Jodi-Ann Seaton Copyright © 2016 Virginia L. Lam and Jodi-Ann Seaton. All rights reserved. The Use of Causal Language and Filled Pauses in Children with and without Autism Mon, 26 Sep 2016 11:17:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/8535868/ This study investigated the relationship between pragmatic ability and two aspects of structural language in conversational language samples from 24 school-age children with and without high-functioning autism (HFA): causal statements and speech disruptions. In contrast to a majority of previous studies, grammatical complexity and mean length of utterance were factored into the analyses, since these are potential confounding variables. The results showed that children with HFA used fewer spontaneous causal statements and fewer filled pauses in conversation compared to children with typical development (TD). There was also a significant and positive relationship between filled pauses and pragmatic ability after controlling for structural language ability. The results may help us understand the conversational patterns of children with HFA better. Anna Eva Hallin, Gabrielle D. Garcia, and Christina Reuterskiöld Copyright © 2016 Anna Eva Hallin et al. All rights reserved. Community-Based Family Literacy Program: Comparing Different Durations and Family Characteristics Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:33:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/4593167/ The current study investigated the influence of the community-based family literacy program on parent’s and children’s engagement in family reading practices and language/literacy activities at home. Parent’s and children’s engagement in family reading practices and language/literacy activities based on different family characteristics and the lengths of program attended were compared. Six-week and four-week Family Storyteller Program for Preschoolers series were taught between 2013 and 2015. Three hundred seventy-five parents completed both presurveys and postsurveys. Parents showed promising results in enhancing parents’ and child’s engagement in family reading practices and language/literacy activities at home after participating in the intervention. It was also found that durations of the program and family characteristics were correlated to different outcomes. YaeBin Kim and Teresa Byington Copyright © 2016 YaeBin Kim and Teresa Byington. All rights reserved. Adolescent Social Anxiety and Substance Use: The Role of Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Thu, 15 Sep 2016 13:24:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/9468972/ The aim of this study was to further our understanding of the link between social anxiety and substance use in adolescents, in particular the role susceptibility to peer pressure plays in this link. The relation between social anxiety and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied in two community samples ( and ) each consisting of two age groups (12-13 and 15–17 years). The relation of these two variables with substance use was evaluated in the second sample using regression analysis. Social anxiety was related to susceptibility to peer pressure in both groups and not related to substance use in the younger group and negatively related to substance use in the older group. Susceptibility to peer pressure acted as a suppressor in the relation between social anxiety and substance use. Results suggest that socially anxious adolescents basically avoid substance use but, if susceptible, may yield to peer pressure and start using substances. Parents, teachers, and therapists should be aware of this susceptibility to possibly negative peer pressure of socially anxious adolescents. Anke W. Blöte, Anne C. Miers, and P. Michiel Westenberg Copyright © 2016 Anke W. Blöte et al. All rights reserved. Integrating Orthographic and Phonological Knowledge in Early Readers: Implicit and Explicit Knowledge Sun, 04 Sep 2016 11:16:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/6036129/ Children develop some orthographic knowledge before learning to read. In some contexts phonological knowledge can scaffold orthographic understanding, but in others, phonological knowledge must be ignored in favor of orthographic knowledge. The current study examines the development of orthographic knowledge as it interacts with phonological knowledge in early readers. Forty-five Kindergarten students were presented with two different nonwords on screen and their gaze was tracked. In the first task, they were asked to choose the best “word,” and in the second task they were asked to choose the best “word” for a specific pronunciation, thereby requiring phonological decoding of the stimuli. Our findings indicate that early readers show explicit awareness of some orthographic conventions and implicit awareness of others, but they only showed implicit awareness when they did not have to additionally decode the stimuli. These results suggest that early orthographic knowledge may be fragile and easily masked by phonological knowledge. Tanya Kaefer Copyright © 2016 Tanya Kaefer. All rights reserved. Differences between Estimation and Real Performance in School-Age Children: Fundamental Movement Skills Tue, 05 Jul 2016 14:28:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/3795956/ Observations in studies of estimation compared to actual performance in motor skills revealed that children are not always accurate and have a tendency to overestimate the maximum distance at which an action can be performed. The relationship between estimated and real motor competences was analyzed for several tasks: standing long jump (SLJ), throwing and kicking, and walking backwards (WB) on a balance beam. Children were asked to predict their maximum distance prior to performing those tasks. Participants were 303 children (160 boys), which were between 6 and 10 years of age (, ). Children’s estimations were compared with their real performance to determine their accuracy. Absolute error (real performance − estimation) and error tendency, that is, the direction of the error (overestimation, accuracy, and underestimation bias), were calculated. Children had a tendency to overestimate their performance and were more conservative in the WB task, a noncommon action. In general, it is possible to conclude that children, in the studied age span, tend to overestimate their performance, particularly in familiar skills. This fact may be determinant to the development of their motor competences, since they are more likely to engage and persist in motor tasks, but it might also be a problem in terms of child safety because it could increase the occurrence of unintended injuries. Gabriela Almeida, Carlos Luz, Rui Martins, and Rita Cordovil Copyright © 2016 Gabriela Almeida et al. All rights reserved. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences Wed, 23 Mar 2016 13:54:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/7056075/ The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS), adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998) to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16) on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes. Frank J. Schwebel, Ronald E. Smith, and Frank L. Smoll Copyright © 2016 Frank J. Schwebel et al. All rights reserved. Perceptions of Popularity-Related Behaviors in the Cyber Context: Relations to Cyber Social Behaviors Tue, 08 Dec 2015 14:14:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2015/636929/ Despite acknowledging that adolescents are active users of electronic technology, little is known about their perceptions concerning how such technologies might be used to promote their social standing among their peer group and whether these perceptions relate to their cyber social behaviors (i.e., cyber aggression perpetration, cyber prosocial behavior). To address this gap in the literature, the present study included 857 seventh graders (M age: 12.19; 50.8% female) from a large Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on face-to-face social behaviors, cyber social behaviors, perceived popularity, social preference, and their perceptions of characteristics and activities related to the cyber context which might be used to promote popularity. Findings revealed four activities and characteristics used to improve adolescents’ social standing in the peer group, including antisocial behaviors, sociability, prosocial behaviors, and technology access. Using antisocial behaviors in the cyber context to promote popularity was related to cyber aggression perpetration, while controlling for gender, social preference, and perceived popularity. On the other hand, sociability and prosocial behaviors in the cyber context used to improve popularity as well as technology access were associated with cyber prosocial behavior. A call for additional research is made. Michelle F. Wright Copyright © 2015 Michelle F. Wright. All rights reserved. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique Mon, 30 Nov 2015 06:00:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2015/189195/ This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version) into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures. Paul Vogt, J. Douglas Mastin, and Suzanne Aussems Copyright © 2015 Paul Vogt et al. All rights reserved. The Mind and Heart of the Social Child: Developing the Empathy and Theory of Mind Scale Tue, 10 Nov 2015 12:56:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2015/171304/ Empathy and theory of mind (ToM) are distinctive psychological constructs in predicting children’s social functioning. This study provided evidence of the independent nature of these constructs and developed a parent questionnaire for measuring individual differences in children’s empathy and ToM. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis based on responses of 116 parents of Hong Kong children established a three-factor structure of the Empathy and Theory of Mind Scale (EToMS), that is, Empathy, Nice ToM, and Nasty ToM. An additional 189 parents of Study 2 confirmed this three-factor model. A subsample of 93 children (, SD = .84, 47 boys) from Study 2 took part in child measures of helping and lying behaviors as well as false belief understanding. The results supported the reliability and validity of the EToMS, making it a useful assessment of children’s social predispositions. Zhenlin Wang and Lamei Wang Copyright © 2015 Zhenlin Wang and Lamei Wang. All rights reserved. Gender Differences in Beliefs about Infant-Directed Speech: The Role of Family Dynamics Mon, 19 Oct 2015 08:20:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2015/871759/ The research investigated the relationship between family dynamics and the beliefs about the benefits of talking to infants. Prior research has shown that language development is enhanced by verbal interaction with others. We tested two hypotheses: (a) men may view talking to infants as less beneficial than women and (b) one’s relationships with parents would be related to the extent to which young adults view talking to infants as beneficial. In a study with 301 undergraduates (181 women, 120 men), we confirmed both hypotheses, showing that (a) men were less likely than women to view talking to infants as beneficial and (b) for both men and women, the more negative their relationship with their mother, the less likely they were to view talking to infants as beneficial. Implications for infant care are discussed. Shelia M. Kennison and Jennifer Byrd-Craven Copyright © 2015 Shelia M. Kennison and Jennifer Byrd-Craven. All rights reserved. Microdevelopment of Complex Featural and Spatial Integration with Contextual Support Thu, 15 Oct 2015 09:22:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2015/902584/ Complex spatial decisions involve the ability to combine featural and spatial information in a scene. In the present work, 4- through 9-year-old children completed a complex map-scene correspondence task under baseline and supported conditions. Children compared a photographed scene with a correct map and with map-foils that made salient an object feature or spatial property. Map-scene matches were analyzed for the effects of age and featural-spatial information on children’s selections. In both conditions children significantly favored maps that highlighted object detail and object perspective rather than color, landmark, and metric elements. Children’s correct performance did not differ by age and was suboptimal, but their ability to choose correct maps improved significantly when contextual support was provided. Strategy variability was prominent for all age groups, but at age 9 with support children were more likely to give up their focus on features and transition to the use of spatial strategies. These findings suggest the possibility of a U-shaped curve for children’s development of geometric knowledge: geometric coding is predominant early on, diminishes for a time in middle childhood in favor of a preference for features, and then reemerges along with the more advanced abilities to combine featural and spatial information. Pamela L. Hirsch and Elisabeth Hollister Sandberg Copyright © 2015 Pamela L. Hirsch and Elisabeth Hollister Sandberg. All rights reserved. The Role of Self-Action in 2-Year-Old Children: An Illustration of the Arithmetical Inversion Principle before Formal Schooling Tue, 24 Feb 2015 17:32:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2015/879258/ The importance of self-action and its considerable links with cognitive activity in childhood are known. For instance, in arithmetical cognition, 2-year-olds detected an impossible arithmetical outcome more accurately when they performed the operation themselves (actor mode) than when the experimenter presented it (onlooker mode). A key component in this domain concerns the understanding of the inversion principle between addition and subtraction. Complex operations can be solved without calculation by using an inversion-based shortcut (3-term problems of the form must equal a). Some studies have shown that, around the age of 4, children implicitly use the inversion principle. However, little is known before the age of 4. Here, we examined the role of self-action in the development of this principle by preschool children. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds were confronted with inversion ( or 2) and standard ( or 2) arithmetical problems either in actor or onlooker mode. The results revealed that actor mode improved accuracy for the inversion problem, suggesting that self-action helps children use the inversion-based shortcut. These results were strengthened with another inversion problem ( or 2) in a second experiment. Our data provide new support for the importance of considering self-action in early mathematics education. Amélie Lubin, Sandrine Rossi, Nicolas Poirel, Céline Lanoë, Arlette Pineau, and Olivier Houdé Copyright © 2015 Amélie Lubin et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Reading Self-Efficacy Associated with Perceived Barriers to Reading Mon, 12 Jan 2015 07:32:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2015/218984/ Although early reading practices impact a host of child literacy, language, and school outcomes, many parents do not read to their young children. One possible explanation for this lack of early literacy practices is mothers’ feelings about their ability to successfully read to their children. A series of multiple regressions were used to explore whether new mothers’ reading self-efficacy predicted their perceived barriers to reading to their 18-month-old children. Findings suggest that self-efficacy buffers against mother-centered (e.g., too tired), child-centered (e.g., toddler fussy), and structural (e.g., environmental distractions) barriers to reading. Given the importance of early literacy and that not all mothers read to their toddlers, increasing reading self-efficacy may offer a way to reduce perceived barriers to early literacy practices. Joyce Lin, Stephanie M. Reich, Sabrina Kataoka, and George Farkas Copyright © 2015 Joyce Lin et al. All rights reserved. Age and Cultural Differences in Self-Perceptions of Mastery Motivation and Competence in American, Chinese, and Hungarian School Age Children Mon, 29 Dec 2014 13:44:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/803061/ We examined age differences in self-perceptions of five dimensions of mastery motivation and also of competence in American, Chinese, and Hungarian children and teens. Participants included 200 Americans, 1,465 Chinese, and 8,175 Hungarians from 7 to 19 years of age. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire provides comparable data across these different cultures as indicated by very similar factor structures and reasonably good internal consistency reliabilities for the scales. Across all three cultures, there was the expected decline from primary to secondary school in total persistence and the four instrumental mastery motivation scales, except for social persistence with adults in the American sample. Mastery pleasure did not decline in the American and Chinese samples but declined in the Hungarian sample. Self-perceived competence did not decline significantly in the American sample or in the Hungarian sample from age 11 to 17; however, competence self-ratings declined in the Chinese sample. The three cultures were compared at 11 and 16. Although there were some significant differences, small effect sizes indicated that the level of motivation was similar for each culture at each age. The other literature provides clues about why the declines occur in all three cultures and why there are some differences among cultures. Krisztian Jozsa, Jun Wang, Karen Caplovitz Barrett, and George A. Morgan Copyright © 2014 Krisztian Jozsa et al. All rights reserved. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:58:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/656327/ This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to examine the effects of large group training by comparing parent and child behaviors prior to intervention with behaviors after the intervention. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA. The results indicated that group training increased parents’ ability to implement functional assessment based strategies and these strategies resulted in a significant reduction in children’s challenging behaviors. Furthermore, parent implementation of functional assessment based strategies and children’s decreased levels of challenging behaviors were maintained after the completion of the intervention. Angel Fettig and Michaelene M. Ostrosky Copyright © 2014 Angel Fettig and Michaelene M. Ostrosky. All rights reserved. Letter and Colour Matching Tasks: Parametric Measures of Developmental Working Memory Capacity Sun, 30 Nov 2014 00:10:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/961781/ We investigated the mediating role of interference in developmental assessments of working memory (WM) capacity across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. One hundred and forty-two participants completed two versions of visuospatial (colour matching task, CMT) and verbal (letter matching task, LMT) WM tasks, which systematically varied cognitive load in a high and low interference condition. Results showed similar developmental trajectories across high interference contexts (CMT- and LMT-Complex) and divergent developmental growth patterns across low interference contexts (CMT- and LMT-Simple). Performance on tasks requiring greater cognitive control was in closer agreement with developmental predictions relative to simple recall guided tasks that rely solely on the storage components of WM. These findings suggest that developmental WM capacity, as measured by the CMT and LMT paradigms, can be better quantified using high interference contexts, in both content domains, and demonstrate steady increases in WM through to mid-adolescence. Tamara L. Powell, Marie Arsalidou, Vanessa M. Vogan, and Margot J. Taylor Copyright © 2014 Tamara L. Powell et al. All rights reserved. Developmental Readiness in the Understanding of Own and Other’s False Beliefs Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/596028/ One of the most important milestones in the development of theory of mind is the understanding of false beliefs. This study compares children’s understanding of representational change and others’ false beliefs and evaluates the effectiveness of an appearance-reality training for improving children’s false belief understanding. A total of 78 children ranging in age from 41 to 47 months were trained in three sessions and evaluated in a pretest and in a posttest. The results show that for children it is easier to understand representational change than false beliefs in others, and that the improvement after training was greater when starting from a higher score in the pretest. The implications of this for training in false belief understanding are discussed. Anna Amadó, Elisabet Serrat, and Francesc Sidera Copyright © 2014 Anna Amadó et al. All rights reserved. Crosslinguistic Developmental Consistency in the Composition of Toddlers’ Internal State Vocabulary: Evidence from Four Languages Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:44:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/575142/ Mental state language, emerging in the second and third years of life in typically developing children, is one of the first signs of an explicit psychological understanding. While mental state vocabulary may serve a variety of conversational functions in discourse and thus might not always indicate psychological comprehension, there is evidence for genuine references to mental states (desires, knowledge, beliefs, and emotions) early in development across languages. This present study presents parental questionnaire data on the composition of 297 toddler-aged (30-to 32-month-olds) children’s internal state vocabulary in four languages: Italian, German, English, and French. The results demonstrated that across languages expressions for physiological states (e.g., hungry and tired) were among the most varied, while children’s vocabulary for cognitive entities (e.g., know and think) proved to be least varied. Further, consistent with studies on children’s comprehension of these concepts, across languages children’s mastery of volition terms (e.g., like to do and want) preceded their mastery of cognition terms. These findings confirm the cross-linguistic consistency of children’s emerging expression of abstract psychological concepts. Susanne Kristen, Sabrina Chiarella, Beate Sodian, Tiziana Aureli, Maria Genco, and Diane Poulin-Dubois Copyright © 2014 Susanne Kristen et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Soothing Techniques and Rough-and-Tumble Play on the Early Development of Temperament: A Longitudinal Study of Infants Wed, 20 Aug 2014 13:11:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/741373/ A total of 189 infants (93 girls, 96 boys) were investigated longitudinally at ages 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months to examine the effects of soothing techniques (i.e., distracting infants by presenting novel objects) and rough-and-tumble play on the early development of temperament, particularly the emergence of Effortful Control. We used questionnaires to examine the frequency of use of soothing techniques and rough-and-tumble play. The Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised (IBQ-R) and the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) were used to assess temperament. A strong relationship was found between parental ratings of their infant's Orienting/Regulation and later Effortful Control. Caregivers’ use of distracting as a soothing technique during infancy was associated with higher Negative Affect in toddlers at 24 months. More surgent infants were involved in more rough-and-tumble play, with rough-and-tumble play frequencies positively correlated with surgency scores at 24 months. Atsuko Nakagawa and Masune Sukigara Copyright © 2014 Atsuko Nakagawa and Masune Sukigara. All rights reserved. Children’s and Adolescents’ Processing of Temporary Syntactic Ambiguity: An Eye Movement Study Tue, 19 Aug 2014 13:17:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/475315/ This study examined the eye movements of 24 children and adolescents as they read sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Prior research suggested that children primarily use grammatical information when making initial parsing decisions, and they tend to disregard semantic and contextual information. On each trial, participants read a garden path sentence (e.g., While the storm blew the boat sat in the shed), and, afterwards, they answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did the storm blow the boat?). The design was 2 × 2 (verb type × ambiguity) repeated measures. Verb type was optionally transitive or reflexive, and sentences were ambiguous or unambiguous. Results showed no differences in first pass reading times at the disambiguating verb (e.g., sat). However, regressions did show a significant interaction. The unambiguous-reflexive condition had approximately half the number of regressions, suggesting less processing difficulty in this condition. Developmentally, we found that adolescents had significantly better comprehension, which seemed to be linked to the increased tendency to regress from the disambiguating word. Findings are consistent with the assumption that the processing architecture is more restricted in children compared to adolescents. In addition, results indicated that variance in ambiguity resolution was associated with interference control but not working memory. Paul E. Engelhardt Copyright © 2014 Paul E. Engelhardt. All rights reserved. Engaging Brazilian Street Children in Play: Observations of Their Family Narratives Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/861703/ Story stem assessments allow children to create narratives in response to brief portrayals of family-based relational challenges. These methods can provide insights into children’s perceptions of close relationships, which is particularly useful for vulnerable children. We conducted a feasibility study of story stem assessments with school-age street children—a previously unstudied population—to explore whether they would understand family-based story scenarios similarly to children in more stable families. Comparisons to children in low income and middle-class conditions were made on the basis of performance characteristics and “narrative coherence.” Street children demonstrated capacities to elaborate family narratives nearly as proficiently as children in the other groups, yet they also displayed unique vulnerabilities. Implications for research with this population are discussed. Maria Leticia Castrechini Fernandes Franieck, Michael Günter, and Timothy Page Copyright © 2014 Maria Leticia Castrechini Fernandes Franieck et al. All rights reserved. Terbutaline and Associated Risks for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:31:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/358608/ Preterm labor often leads to a preterm birth and has been shown to be the most important determinant of risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality. While medication management has been utilized by physicians to delay preterm labor, the results these medications achieve remain inconsistent, in addition to increasing the risk to the developing fetus. Terbutaline has been among the most commonly used -adrenoreceptor (AR) agonists in the management of preterm labor. The research suggests that tocolytic terbutaline therapy carries a significant risk for the mother and the child, which can be magnified by extended exposure, sex of the fetus, and administration during critical fetal developmental periods. This paper highlights the research on terbutaline in treatment of preterm labor, along with the possible associated cognitive deficits in adolescents who were treated with terbutaline in utero. Two case summaries are presented to illustrate the potential deficits in clinical presentations of adolescents with history of intrauterine exposure to terbutaline. Publicizing the association between terbutaline and these deficits can not only assist obstetricians and expectant mothers in making a more informed choice in the treatment of preterm labor but also provide neuropsychologists and pediatricians with information helpful in understanding the etiology of these impairments. Robert Perna, Ashlee Loughan, Hana Perkey, and Kelly Tyson Copyright © 2014 Robert Perna et al. All rights reserved. Revealing Children's Experiences and Emotions through Q Methodology Thu, 12 Jun 2014 12:38:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/910529/ Over the last two decades, there has been a greater readiness to view children as competent contributors to our understanding of children’s lives and experiences. As a consequence of this, we have witnessed an increased focus on including children in research. When research aims at revealing children’s perspectives, experiences, and emotions, we need to employ methods that are easy-to-use means for obtaining their stories. In this paper, we argue that Q methodology is particularly suitable for facilitating children’s participation in research. We will give a brief presentation of the methodology and demonstrate its relevance for research with children. We do so by presenting two research examples aiming at revealing children’s experiences and emotions in challenging life circumstances. In the first example, Q methodology was used with five-year-old children where the research topic was divorce. The second example is a study on family perceptions among adolescents in foster home care. Ingunn T. Ellingsen, Arlene Arstad Thorsen, and Ingunn Størksen Copyright © 2014 Ingunn T. Ellingsen et al. All rights reserved. Breastfeeding Education: A Physician and Patient Assessment Sun, 01 Jun 2014 08:01:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/413053/ In the study presented here, Likert scaled surveys derived from the Surgeon General’s Blueprint for Action on Breastfeeding (2000) were mailed to 400 practicing physicians in a Midwestern state to assess medical school breastfeeding education. In addition, 500 surveys were mailed to women in the same Midwestern state who had given birth within the last year to determine what type of breastfeeding information they were receiving from their attending physicians. The purpose of this study is to analyze physician breastfeeding education and to ascertain if the data collected from the physicians is congruent with the data collected from the women who had recently given birth. Results of this study indicate that while the majority of physicians reported sufficient levels of breastfeeding education while in medical school, women participating in this study reported that they did not receive compendious breastfeeding information from their attending physicians. J. M. Stolzer and Syed Afzal Hossain Copyright © 2014 J. M. Stolzer and Syed Afzal Hossain. All rights reserved.