Table 1: Patient characteristics.

CharacteristicsTotalNVAFVAFp-Value
(n = 4161)(n = 3562)(n = 599)

Age (years), mean ± SD68.3 ± 11.969.3 ± 11.662.0 ± 11.5<0.001
Female, n (%)1950 (46.9)1541 (43.3)409 (68.3)<0.001
Duration of AF (years), mean ± SD5.7 ± 6.95.1 ± 6.38.5 ± 9.1<0.001
Region, n, (%)0.019
 Northeast138 (3.3)125 (3.5)13 (2.2)
 East2664 (64.0)2279 (64.0)385 (64.3)
 West583 (14.0)480 (13.5)103 (17.2)
 Middle776 (18.6)678 (19.0)98 (16.4)
Hospital level, n (%)0.305
 Secondary742 (17.8)644 (18.1)98 (16.4)
 Tertiary3419 (82.2)2918 (81.9)501 (83.6)
Current smoker, n (%)411 (9.9)383 (10.8)28 (4.7)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD24.0 ± 3.524.3 ± 3.522.7 ± 3.4<0.001
SBP (mmHg), mean ± SD129.6 ±18.1130.7 ±18.0123.2 ±17.1<0.001
DBP (mmHg), mean ± SD78.2 ± 11.678.7 ± 11.675.2 ± 11.1<0.001
Type of AF, n (%)<0.001
 New-onset511 (12.3)470 (13.2)41 (6.8)
 Paroxysmal1347 (32.4)1257 (35.3)90 (15.0)
 Persistent1293 (31.1)1072 (30.1)221 (36.9)
 Permanent995 (23.9)752 (21.1)243 (40.6)
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)
 Coronary artery disease1395 (33.7)1321 (37.3)74 (12.4)<0.001
 Hypertension2375 (57.1)2199 (61.8)176 (29.4)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus705 (16.9)624 (17.5)81 (13.5)0.013
 Heart failure1588 (38.2)1235 (34.7)353 (58.9)<0.001
NYHA classification, n (%)<0.001
 Class I36 (0.9)30 (0.8)6 (1.0)
 Class II397 (9.6)323 (9.1)74 (12.4)
 Class III745 (17.9)577 (16.2)168 (28.2)
 Class IV388 (9.3)101 (16.9)577 (16.2)
 Peripheral artery disease184 (4.4)161 (4.5)23 (3.8)0.441
 Renal dysfunction186 (4.5)167 (4.7)19 (3.2)0.082
 Hepatic disease168 (4.0)139 (3.9)29 (4.8)0.293
 Dyslipidemia851 (20.5)772 (21.7)79 (13.2)<0.001
Thromboembolic events, n (%)722 (17.4)620 (17.4)102 (17.0)0.808
 Ischemic stroke518 (12.5)448 (12.6)70 (13.5)0.538
 TIA123 (3.0)104 (2.9)19 (3.2)0.738
 Non-CNS embolism42 (1.0)29 (0.8)13 (2.2)0.006
Bleeding events310 (7.5)233 (6.5)77 (12.9)<0.001
 GI bleeding87 (2.1)74 (2.1)13 (2.2)0.641
 ICH67 (1.6)56 (1.6)11 (1.8)0.884
 Other sites156 (3.7)103 (2.9)53 (8.8)<0.001
Antiarrhythmic treatment, n (%)<0.001
 Rhythm control854 (20.5)790 (22.2)64 (10.7)
 Rate control2330 (56.1)1899 (53.4)431 (72.1)
 Both410 (9.9)370 (10.4)40 (6.7)

AF: atrial fibrillation; BMI: body mass index; CNS: central nervous system; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; NVAF: non-valvular atrial fibrillation; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; SD: standard deviation; TIA: transient ischemic attack; VAF: valvular atrial fibrillation; GI: gastrointestinal bleeding; ICH: intracranial bleeding.