Table 1: Baseline characteristics and well-being of older adults by living arrangement ( 𝑁 = 2 7 9 9 ).

Living alone ( 𝑁 = 2 1 1 )Living with others ( 𝑁 = 2 5 8 8 )t 𝜒 2 𝑃
Mean%SDNMean%SDN

Age, years67.57.4765.97.672.900.004
Gender
 Male21.34538.097623.3<0.001
 Female78.716662.01592
Race
 Chinese91.019293.524016.600.04
 Non-Chinese9.0196.50167
Marital status
 Single28.0594.00104455.2<0.001
 Married16.13478.52017
 Divorced/Separated13.7292.5061
 Widowed42.28915.0385
Education
 None28.05918.347014.00.007
 Primary (1–6 years)27.55833.6864
 Secondary (7–10 years)32.26831.7814
 Postsecondary6.60149.70250
 University5.70126.70170
Loneliness status
 Lonely24.25110.927936.5<0.001
 Not lonely75.816089.12309
Social contact score1.600.891.360.684.87<0.001
Social activities score3.102.292.992.210.680.50
Production activities score4.001.783.821.921.340.18
Fitness activities score2.291.912.521.99−1.600.11
Health activities score5.741.815.731.830.030.98
No. of medical problems2.051.451.981.780.610.54
Baseline ADL19.90.5119.71.481.330.18
Baseline GDS2.453.391.852.673.070.002
Baseline MMSE26.53.5326.93.58−1.410.16
Baseline SF-12_MCS54.27.7353.78.180.880.38

Lonely ( 𝑁 = 3 3 4 )Not lonely ( 𝑁 = 2 4 6 5 )t 𝜒 2 𝑃
Mean%SDNMean%SDN

Age, years67.58.6465.97.493.400.001
Gender
 Male38.312836.98300.250.62
 Female61.720663.11419
Race
 Chinese90.430293.78305.570.06
 Non-Chinese9.60326.30142
Marital status
 Single10.5355.1011564.5<0.001
 Married57.519276.41719
 Divorced/Separated7.50252.4055
 Widowed24.58115.9357
Education
 None17.75919.84452.860.58
 Primary (1–6 years)35.311832.2725
 Secondary (7–10 years)31.710631.5709
 Postsecondary8.10279.90222
 University7.20246.60148
Social contact score1.610.871.320.657.35<0.001
Social activities score2.531.943.102.25−4.39<0.001
Production activities score3.301.943.931.89−5.70<0.001
Fitness activities score2.171.962.571.99−3.440.001
Health activities score5.141.985.841.80−6.55<0.001
No. of medical problems2.201.461.941.802.600.01
Baseline ADL19.61.7319.81.40−2.080.04
Baseline GDS4.573.991.281.9124.5<0.001
Baseline MMSE26.24.3027.03.41−3.56<0.001
Baseline SF-12_MCS48.610.154.97.09−7.81<0.001