Table 2: Cross-sectional analysis: associations of living arrangement and loneliness with baseline GDS and SF-12_MCS scores.

Source of variationDepressive symptoms scores ( 𝑁 = 2 7 9 9 )SF-12_MCS scores ( 𝑁 = 2 7 6 9 )
dfMean squareF 𝑃 𝑅 2 dfMean squareF 𝑃 𝑅 2

Base model:
 Age163.199.060.0031364.175.630.02
 Gender (0 = male, 1 = female)13.500.500.48120.460.320.54
 Race15.710.820.37158.430.900.34
 Education10.150.020.8817.160.110.74
 Marital status113.501.940.16179.101.220.27
 Number of medical problems1202.5729.06<0.0011861.4413.32<0.001
 Baseline ADL124.063.450.061156.182.420.12
 Baseline MMSE1191.2127.43<0.0011317.574.910.03
 Social contact frequency score1175.0825.11<0.0011514.347.950.005
 Social activities score131.124.460.04186.301.330.25
 Production activities score192.5813.28<0.0011847.2813.10<0.001
 Fitness activities score11.450.210.651198.543.070.08
 Health activities score1313.7645.00<0.0010.08111721.8026.62<0.0010.034
Model 1a: plus living alone versus with others (1,0) only151.857.450.0060.083179.031.220.270.034
Model 1b: plus Lonely versus not lonely (1,0) only12414.76486.86<0.0010.23119170.17165.16<0.0010.095
Model 2: plus living alone and loneliness (main effects)
 Living alone versus with others (1,0)12.250.450.501345.376.230.01
 Lonely versus not lonely (1,0)12349.77473.56<0.0010.23119294.44167.59<0.0010.096
Model 3: Main effects and interaction
 Living alone versus with others (1,0)119.553.950.0471388.597.010.01
 Lonely versus not lonely (1,0)11445.06292.07<0.00113753.9767.69<0.001
 Living arrangements*Loneliness140.858.260.0040.232151.080.920.340.096