Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Deficiency: Lessons from Imaging Studies and Down Syndrome

Table 1

Vascular defects in Down syndrome: birth defects and prenatal vascular findings [3, 4].

Birth defectsPrenatal vascular findings

Cardiac defects (VSD and ASD) (found in 50% of persons with DS)Reverse flow in the ductus venosus (90% of all DS fetuses)
Intrahepatic venous anomaliesPlacental hypovascularity (100%)
Pelvic vasculature malformationsIntrathoracic vascular lesions (more rare, probably leads to fetal demise)
Pulmonary vein obstructionUmbilicoportal vascular anomalies (most common fetal defect in DS)
Aortopulmonary collateral arteries
Anomalous aortic arch arteries
Aberrant right subclavian artery (found in 20–40% of persons with DS)
Moyamoya disease
Arterial dysplasia
Thrombosis of the venous sinuses

Birth defects: anomalies found at birth or later in life. May be found due to symptoms, or may be found incidentally. Some can also be found via pre-natal ultrasound, such as the cardiac defects, and aberrant right subclavian artery.
Prenatal vascular findings: anomalies found via pre-natal ultrasound, either in a research or clinical setting. Many of these anomalies will resolve at birth.
VSD: ventricular septal defect; ASD: atrial septal defect.

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