Table 2: Summary of hierarchical regression analysis to identify the contribution of patients’ and caregivers’ characteristics on GDS scoring.

VariablesModel 1Model 2Model 3

Demographic characteristics
Patient’s Age-0.084-0.005-0.007
Patient’s Gender0.1380.1150.120
Patient’s Education0.0070.0190.027
Caregiver’s Age-0.115-0.043-0.033
Caregiver’s Gender0.0860.0800.078
Caregiver’s Education-0.104-0.076-0.086
Caregiver being a spouse-0.125-0.078-0.056
Patients’ disease and clinical/psychometric features
Diagnosis of AD-0.055-0.064
MMSE-0.528 -0.524
K-IADL-0.310 -0.264
Caregivers’ psychometric features and caregiving characteristics
Weekly hours of caring-0.059
Caregiver living with the patient0.083
Presence of professional caregiver-0.108

F-model1.13321.149 15.742
Adjusted R20.0050.5350.550
F1.13353.920 2.249

Note. AD = Alzheimer’s dementia; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; NPI = Neuropsychiatric Inventory; K-IADL = Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living; GDS = Global Deterioration Scale; CES-D = Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression; ZBI = Zarit Burden Inventory. β corresponds to standardized beta coefficients. Bold adjusted correspond to models significantly explaining the variance of the dependent variable (i.e., GDS scoring). p < 0.05; p < 0.01; p < 0.001.