Table 3: Comparison of risk factors between fallers and nonfallers (n=300).

CharacteristicFallers
n=103
Nonfallers
n=197
Significance
(p value)

Biological factors

Age65-74 years60 (58.3)40 (20.3)< 0.001
75 years and above43 (41.7)157 (79.7)

GenderMale32 (31.1)93 (47.2)0.007
Female71 (68.9)104 (52.8)

Presence of at least one chronic medical condition81 (78.6)102 (51.8)< 0.001

Presence of more than one chronic medical condition42 (40.8)44 (22.3)0.001

Presence of more than two chronic medical conditions14 (13.6)9 (4.6)0.005

Diabetes Mellitus31 (30.1)26 (13.2)< 0.001

Cardiac diseases20 (19.4)14 (7.1)0.001

Hypertension56 (54.4)68 (34.5)0.001

Hyperlipidemia7 ( 6.8)15 (7.6)0.79

Vertigo/Dizziness7 ( 6.8)4 (2.0)0.04

Arthritis9 ( 8.7)15 (7.6)0.73

Chronic pulmonary diseases7 ( 6.8)10 (5.1)0.54

Epilepsy1 ( 1.0)5 (2.5)0.35

Vision impairment affecting day-to-day activities93 (90.3)137 (69.5)< 0.001

Balance/gait problem or foot abnormality68 (66.0)41 (20.8)< 0.001

Problem with sleep such as insomnia72 (69.9)72 (36.5)< 0.001

Behavioral factors

Usage of at least one long term medication64 (62.1)75 (38.1)< 0.001

Usage of more than one long term medication32 (31.1)30 (15.2)0.001

Usage of more than two long term medications8 (7.8)9 ( 4.6)0.25

Antihypertensive drugs46 (44.7)63 (32.0)0.03

Oral hypoglycemic drugs28 (27.2)21 (10.7)< 0.001

Cardiac/lipid lowering drugs23 (22.3)22 (11.2)0.01

Steroids 8 ( 7.8) 8 ( 4.1)0.17

Consumption of alcohol18 (17.5)53 (26.9)0.06

Smoking11 (10.7)26 (13.2)0.52

Time duration of exposure to sunlight per day≤ 3 hours74 (71.8)84 (42.6)< 0.001
>3 hours29 (28.2)113 (57.4)

Nutritional statusSatisfactory47 (45.6)59 (29.9)0.007
Unsatisfactory56 (54.4)138 (70.1)

Usage of walking aids25 (24.3)6 ( 3.0)< 0.001

Use of spectacles53 (51.5)91 (46.2)0.38

Environmental factors

Floor materialCement/tile92 (89.3)195 (99.0)< 0.001
Other11 (10.7)2 (1.0)

Light source of the houseElectricity95 (92.2)195 (99.0)0.002
Other8 (7.8)2 (1.0)

Water sourceInside home78 (75.7)178 (90.4)0.001
Outside home25 (24.3)19 (9.6)

Socioeconomic factors

Level of educationGrade 5 or below51 (49.5)65 (33.0)0.005
Beyond grade 552 (50.5)132(67.0)

Living arrangementWith spouse or children90 (87.4)178 (90.4)0.42
Alone13 (12.6)19 (9.6)

Monthly income
(Sri Lankan Rupees)
< 20000100(97.1)181 (91.9)0.07
20000 or more3 (2.9)16 (8.1)