Table of Contents
Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 357027, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/357027
Review Article

Imatinib: A Breakthrough of Targeted Therapy in Cancer

1Department of Medical Oncology, Dr. B. R. A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
2Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi 110076, India

Received 4 April 2014; Accepted 6 May 2014; Published 19 May 2014

Academic Editor: Vassilis Georgoulias

Copyright © 2014 Nida Iqbal and Naveed Iqbal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. H. Takimoto and E. Calvo, “Principles of oncological pharmacotherapy,” in Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach, R. Pazdur, L. D. Wagman, K. A. Camphausen, and W. J. Hoskins, Eds., 11th edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. W. Deininger and B. J. Druker, “Specific targeted therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia with imatinib,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 401–423, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Vigneri and J. Y. Wang, “Induction of apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells through nuclear entrapment of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase,” Nature Medicine, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 228–234, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Peng, C. Dutreix, G. Mehring et al., “Absolute bioavailability of Imatinib (Glivec®) orally versus intravenous infusion,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 158–162, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Peng, P. Lloyd, and H. Schran, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of imatinib,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 879–894, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. L. Hensley and J. M. Ford, “Imatinib treatment: specific issues related to safety, fertility, and pregnancy,” Seminars in Hematology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 21–25, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. D. Rowley, “A new consistent chromosomal abnormality in chronic myelogenous leukaemia identified by quinacrine fluorescence and Giemsa staining,” Nature, vol. 243, no. 5405, pp. 290–293, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. G. Lugo, A.-M. Pendergast, A. J. Muller, and O. N. Witte, “Tyrosine kinase activity and transformation potency of bcr-abl oncogene products,” Science, vol. 247, no. 4946, pp. 1079–1082, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. J. Druker, S. Tamura, E. Buchdunger et al., “Effects of a selective inhibitor of the ABL tyrosine kinase on the growth of BCR-ABL—positive cells,” Nature Medicine, vol. 2, pp. 561–566, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. B. J. Druker, C. L. Sawyers, H. Kantarjian et al., “Activity of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in the blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the Philadelphia chromosome,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 14, pp. 1038–1042, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. J. Druker, M. Talpaz, D. J. Resta et al., “Efficacy and safety of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 14, pp. 1031–1037, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. G. O'Brien, F. Guilhot, R. A. Larson et al., “Imatinib compared with interferon and low-dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 11, pp. 994–1004, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. A. Hahn, G. A. Glendenning, M. V. Sorensen et al., “Quality of life in patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia on imatinib versus interferon alfa plus low-dose cytarabine: results from the IRIS study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2138–2146, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. J. Druker, F. Guilhot, S. G. O'Brien et al., “Five-year follow-up of patients receiving imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, pp. 2408–2417, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. C. L. Sawyers, A. Hochhaus, E. Feldman et al., “Imatinib induces hematologic and cytogenetic responses in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in myeloid blast crisis: results of a phase II study,” Blood, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 3530–3539, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Talpaz, R. T. Silver, B. J. Druker et al., “Imatinib induces durable hematologic and cytogenetic responses in patients with accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia: results of a phase 2 study,” Blood, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1928–1937, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Branford and T. Hughes, “Detection of BCR-ABL mutations and resistance to imatinib mesylate,” Methods in Molecular Medicine, vol. 125, pp. 93–106, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Jabbour, H. Kantarjian, D. Jones et al., “Frequency and clinical significance of BCR-ABL mutations in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate,” Leukemia, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1767–1773, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Jabbour, H. M. Kantarjian, D. Jones et al., “Imatinib mesylate dose escalation is associated with durable responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia after cytogenetic failure on standard-dose imatinib therapy,” Blood, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 2154–2160, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. Jabbour, J. E. Cortes, H. Ghanem, S. O'Brien, and H. M. Kantarjian, “Targeted therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 99–110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Saglio, D. Kim, S. Issaragrisil et al., “Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 24, pp. 2251–2259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Kantarjian, N. P. Shah, A. Hochhaus et al., “Dasatinib versus imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 24, pp. 2260–2270, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. J. Kang, K. H. Koh, E. Yang et al., “Differentially expressed proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumors with KIT and PDGFRA mutations,” Proteomics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1151–1157, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Medeiros, C. L. Corless, A. Duensing et al., “KIT-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors: proof of concept and therapeutic implications,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 889–894, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. D. Demetri, M. Von Mehren, C. D. Blanke et al., “Efficacy and safety of imatinib mesylate in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 7, pp. 472–480, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. D. Blanke, G. D. Demetri, M. Von Mehren et al., “Long-term results from a randomized phase II trial of standard- versus higher-dose imatinib mesylate for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors expressing KIT,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 620–625, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Verweij, A. Van Oosterom, J.-Y. Blay et al., “Imatinib mesylate (STI-571 Glivec®, Gleevec) is an active agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, but does not yield responses in other soft-tissue sarcomas that are unselected for a molecular target: results from an EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group phase II study,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 39, no. 14, pp. 2006–2011, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. D. Blanke, C. Rankin, G. D. Demetri et al., “Phase III randomized, intergroup trial assessing imatinib mesylate at two dose levels in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors expressing the kit receptor tyrosine kinase: S0033,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 626–632, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Verweij, P. G. Casali, J. Zalcberg et al., “Progression-free survival in gastrointestinal stromal tumours with high-dose imatinib: randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9440, pp. 1127–1134, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Y. Blay, C. A. Le, I. Ray-Coquard et al., “Prospective multicentric randomized phase III study of imatinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors comparing interruption versus continuation of treatment beyond 1 year: the French sarcoma group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1107–1113, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Debiec-Rychter, R. Sciot, A. Le Cesne et al., “KIT mutations and dose selection for imatinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1093–1103, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. Joensuu, “Adjuvant therapy for high-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumour: considerations for optimal management,” Drugs, vol. 72, no. 15, pp. 1953–1963, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. P. Reichardt, J.-Y. Blay, I. Boukovinas et al., “Adjuvant therapy in primary GIST: state-of-the-art,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 2776–2278, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. R. P. DeMatteo, K. V. Ballman, C. R. Antonescu et al., “Adjuvant imatinib mesylate after resection of localised, primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9669, pp. 1097–1104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Casali, A. Le Cesne, A. P. Velasco et al., “Imatinib failure-free survival (IFS) in patients with localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) treated with adjuvant imatinib (IM): the EORTC/AGITG/FSG/GEIS/ISG randomized controlled phase III trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 31, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  36. H. Joensuu, M. Eriksson, K. S. Hall et al., “One vs three years of adjuvant imatinib for operable gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 12, pp. 1265–1272, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Van Glabbeke, J. Verweij, P. G. Casali et al., “Initial and late resistance to imatinib in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors are predicted by different prognostic factors: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Italian Sarcoma Group-Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group Study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 5795–5804, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. C. Heinrich, C. L. Corless, C. D. Blanke et al., “Molecular correlates of imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 29, pp. 4764–4774, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Desai, S. Shankar, M. C. Heinrich et al., “Clonal evolution of resistance to imatinib in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 5398–5405, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. C. Miselli, P. Casieri, T. Negri et al., “c-Kit/PDGFRA gene status alterations possibly related to primary imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 2369–2377, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Eechoute, A. Sparreboom, H. Burger et al., “Drug transporters and imatinib treatment: implications for clinical practice,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 406–415, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. R. Zalcberg, J. Verweij, P. G. Casali et al., “Outcome of patients with advanced gastro-intestinal stromal tumours crossing over to a daily imatinib dose of 800 mg after progression on 400 mg,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1751–1757, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. D. Demetri, M. C. Heinrich, J. A. Fletcher et al., “Molecular target modulation, imaging, and clinical evaluation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients treated with sunitinib malate after imatinib failure,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 18, pp. 5902–5909, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. Reichardt, J. Y. Blay, H. Gelderblom et al., “Phase III study of nilotinib versus best supportive care with or without a TKI in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors resistant to or intolerant of imatinib and sunitinib,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1680–1687, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. W. B. Laskin, “Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans,” Ca-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 116–125, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. P. Simon, M. Navarro, D. Roux et al., “Transforming properties of chimerical protein COL1A1-PDGFB generated by dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-associated translocation t(17,22)(q22,q13.1),” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 128, p. 82, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  47. A. Greco, E. Roccato, C. Miranda, L. Cleris, F. Formelli, and M. A. Pierotti, “Growth-inhibitory effect of STI571 on cells transformed by the COL1A1/PDGFB rearrangement,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 354–360, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Mizutani, Y. Tamada, K. Hara et al., “Imatinib mesylate inhibits the growth of metastatic lung lesions in a patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 235–237, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. V. Labropoulos, J. A. Fletcher, A. M. Oliveira, S. Papadopoulos, and E. D. Razis, “Sustained complete remission of metastatic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with imatinib mesylate,” Anti-Cancer Drugs, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 461–466, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. G. A. McArthur, G. D. Demetri, A. Van Oosterom et al., “Molecular and clinical analysis of locally advanced dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans treated with imatinib: imatinib target exploration consortium study B2225,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 866–873, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. V. E. Price, J. A. Fletcher, M. Zielenska et al., “Imatinib mesylate: an attractive alternative in young children with large, surgically challenging dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 511–515, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Han, E. H. Chen, G. Niedt, W. Sherman, and D. Ratner, “Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 145, no. 7, pp. 792–796, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. Kérob, R. Porcher, O. Vérola et al., “Imatinib mesylate as a preoperative therapy in dermatofibrosarcoma: results of a multicenter phase II study on 25 patients,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 3288–3295, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. D. A. Thomas, “Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphocytic leukemia: a new era of challenges,” Hematology, pp. 435–443, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. B. Wassmann, H. Pfeifer, N. Goekbuget et al., “Alternating versus concurrent schedules of imatinib and chemotherapy as front-line therapy for Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL),” Blood, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 1469–1477, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Pfeifer, N. Goekbuget, C. Völp et al., “Long-term outcome of 335 adult patients receiving different schedules of imatinib and chemotherapy as front-line treatment for Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL),” Blood, vol. 116, 2010, abstract 173. View at Google Scholar
  57. A. K. Fielding, J. M. Rowe, G. Buck et al., “UKALLXII/ECOG2993:addition of Imatinib to a standard treatment regimen enhances long-term outcomes in Philadelphia positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Imatinib significantly enhances long-term outcomes in Philadelphia positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” Blood, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 843–850, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. A. Tefferi, J. Gotlib, and A. Pardanani, “Hypereosinophilic syndrome and clonal eosinophilia:point-of-care diagnostic algorithm and treatment update,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 158–164, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. Bain, R. Pierre, M. Imbert et al., “Chronic eosinophilic leukaemia and the hypereosinophilic syndrome,” in World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, E. S. Jaffe, N. L. Harris, H. Stein, and J. W. Vardiman, Eds., pp. 29–31, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  60. A. Pardanani and A. Tefferi, “Imatinib targets other than bcr/abl and their clinical relevance in myeloid disorders,” Blood, vol. 104, no. 7, pp. 1931–1939, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. Cools, D. J. DeAngelo, J. Gotlib et al., “A tyrosine kinase created by fusion of the PDGFRA and FIP1L1 genes as a therapeutic target of imatinib in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 13, pp. 1201–1214, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. Tefferi, M. M. Patnaik, and A. Pardanani, “Eosinophilia: secondary, clonal and idiopathic,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 468–492, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. V. Jovanovic, J. Score, K. Waghorn et al., “Low-dose imatinib mesylate leads to rapid induction of major molecular responses and achievement of complete molecular remission in FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia,” Blood, vol. 109, no. 11, pp. 4635–4640, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Pardanani, R. P. Ketterling, C.-Y. Li et al., “FIP1L1-PDGFRA in eosinophilic disorders: prevalence in routine clinical practice, long-term experience with imatinib therapy, and a critical review of the literature,” Leukemia Research, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 965–970, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. G. Metzgeroth, H. Popp, C. Walz et al., “A phase-II-study to evaluate efficacy and safety of imatinib in eosinophilia-associated myeloproliferative disorders and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome,” Blood, vol. 108, 2006, abstract 671. View at Google Scholar
  66. P. Valent, H. Horny, L. Escribano et al., “Diagnostic criteria and classification of mastocytosis: a consensus proposal,” Leukemia Research, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 603–625, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Pardanani, C. Akin, and P. Valent, “Pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment advances in mastocytosis,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 595–615, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Vega-Ruiz, J. E. Cortes, M. Sever et al., “Phase II study of imatinib mesylate as therapy for patients with systemic mastocytosis,” Leukemia Research, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1481–1484, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. L. Pagano, C. G. Valentini, M. Caira et al., “Advanced mast cell disease: an Italian Hematological Multicenter experience,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 483–488, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Pardanani, M. Elliott, T. Reeder et al., “Imatinib for systemic mast-cell disease,” The Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9383, pp. 535–537, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. Verzijl, R. Heide, A. P. Oranje, and R. H. N. Van Schaik, “C-kit Asp-816-Val mutation analysis in patients with mastocytosis,” Dermatology, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. C. Heinrich, H. Joensuu, G. D. Demetri et al., “Phase II, open-label study evaluating the activity of imatinib in treating life-threatening malignancies known to be associated with imatinib- sensitivetyrosine kinases,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2717–2725, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. D. Lev, D. Kotilingam, C. Wei et al., “Optimizing treatment of desmoid tumors,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 1785–1791, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. El-Haddad, M. El-Sebaie, R. Ahmad et al., “Treatment of aggressive fibromatosis: the experience of a single institution,” Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 775–780, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. Mace, J. Sybil Biermann, V. Sondak et al., “Response of extraabdominal desmoid tumors to therapy with imatinib mesylate,” Cancer, vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 2373–2379, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. Chugh, J. K. Wathen, S. R. Patel et al., “Efficacy of imatinib in aggressive fibromatosis: results of a phase II multicenter Sarcoma Alliance for Research through Collaboration (SARC) trial,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 19, pp. 4884–4891, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. Penel, A. Le Cesne, B. N. Bui et al., “Imatinib for progressive and recurrent aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumors): an FNCLCC/French Sarcoma Group phase II trial with a long-term follow-up,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 452–457, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. A. Curtin, K. Busam, D. Pinkel, and B. C. Bastian, “Somatic activation of KIT in distinct subtypes of melanoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 26, pp. 4340–4346, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. R. Antonescu, K. J. Busam, T. D. Francone et al., “L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 257–264, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. R. D. Carvajal, C. R. Antonescu, J. D. Wolchok et al., “KIT as a therapeutic target in metastatic melanoma,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 22, pp. 2327–2334, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. S. Hodi, C. L. Corless, A. Giobbie-Hurder et al., “Imatinib for melanomas harboring mutationally activated or amplified KIT arising on mucosal, acral, and chronically sun-damaged skin,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 26, pp. 3182–3190, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. R. D. Carvajal, “Another option in our KIT of effective therapies for advanced melanoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 26, pp. 3173–3175, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. B. J. Dezube, “Clinical presentation and natural history of AIDS—related Kaposi's sarcoma,” Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1023–1029, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. A. M. Cattelan, M. L. Calabrò, A. De Rossi et al., “Long-term clinical outcome of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma during highly active antiretroviral therapy,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 779–785, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. B. Koon, S. E. Krown, J. Y. Lee et al., “Phase II Trial of Imatinib in AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma: AIDS Malignancy Consortium Protocol 042,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 402–408, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  86. N. L. Higinbotham, R. F. Phillips, H. W. Farr, and H. O. Hustu, “Chordoma. Thirty-five-year study at Memorial Hospital,” Cancer, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1841–1850, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. P. G. Casali, S. Stacchiotti, C. Sangalli, P. Olmi, and A. Gronchi, “Chordoma,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 367–370, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Stacchiotti, A. Longhi, V. Ferraresi et al., “Phase II study of imatinib in advanced chordoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 914–920, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. T. J. Herzog and B. Pothuri, “Ovarian cancer: a focus on management of recurrent disease,” Nature Clinical Practice Oncology, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 604–611, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. M. Apte, D. Fan, J. J. Killion, and I. J. Fidler, “Targeting the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor in Antivascular Therapy for Human Ovarian Carcinoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 897–908, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. D. S. Alberts, P. Y. Liu, S. P. Wilczynski et al., “Phase II trial of imatinib mesylate in recurrent, biomarker positive, ovarian cancer (Southwest Oncology Group Protocol S0211),” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 784–788, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. M. Posadas, V. Kwitkowski, H. L. Kotz et al., “A prospective analysis of imatinib-induced c-KIT modulation in ovarian cancer: a phase II clinical study with proteomic profiling,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 309–317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. T. Safra, E. Andreopoulou, B. Levinson et al., “Weekly paclitaxel with intermittent imatinib mesylate (Gleevec®): tolerance and activity in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 3243–3247, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Podtcheko, A. Ohtsuru, S. Tsuda et al., “The selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571, inhibits growth of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1889–1896, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. H. T. Ha, J. S. Lee, S. Urba et al., “A phase II study of imatinib in patients with advanced anaplastic thyroid cancer,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 975–980, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. Wolff, M. Schleuning, S. von Harsdorf et al., “Consensus conference on clinical practice in chronic GVHD: second-line treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. Olivieri, S. Coluzzi, I. Attolico, and A. Olivieri, “Tirosin kinase inhibitors in chronic graft versus host disease: from bench to bedside,” TheScientificWorldJournal, vol. 11, pp. 1908–1931, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. R. Seggewiss, K. Loré, E. Greiner et al., “Imatinib inhibits T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell proliferation and activation in a dose-dependent manner,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 2473–2479, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. Olivieri, M. Cimminiello, P. Corradini et al., “Long-term outcome and prospective validation of NIH response criteria in 39 patients receiving imatinib for steroid-refractory chronic GVHD,” Blood, vol. 122, no. 25, pp. 4111–4118, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar