Table of Contents
Cholesterol
Volume 2014, Article ID 109263, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/109263
Review Article

Severe/Extreme Hypertriglyceridemia and LDL Apheretic Treatment: Review of the Literature, Original Findings

1Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 356 Sygrou Avenue, 176 74 Athens, Greece
2Molecular Immunology Laboratory, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 356 Sygrou Avenue, 176 74 Athens, Greece

Received 30 July 2014; Revised 12 November 2014; Accepted 12 November 2014; Published 16 December 2014

Academic Editor: Shinichi Oikawa

Copyright © 2014 Olga Diakoumakou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Válek, V. Brodan, E. Kuhn, and J. Pechar, “Postprandial lipemia and ischemic heart disease,” Cesko-Slovenska Gastroenterologie a Vyziva, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 74–78, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. W. Barritt, “Alimentary lipaemia in men with coronary artery disease and in controls,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 4993, pp. 640–644, 1956. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. A. Denborough, “Alimentary lipaemia in ischaemic heart disease,” Clinical Science, vol. 25, pp. 115–122, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. R. Harlan Jr. and D. E. Beischer, “Changes in serum lipoproteins after a large fat meal in normal individuals and in patients with ischemic heart disease,” American Heart Journal, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. R. Patsch, G. Miesenbock, T. Hopferwieser et al., “Relation of triglyceride metabolism and coronary artery disease: studies in the postprandial state,” Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1336–1345, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. R. Moreton, “Atherosclerosis and alimentary hyperlipemia,” Science, vol. 106, no. 2748, pp. 190–191, 1947. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. T. Kuo and C. R. Joyner Jr., “Angina pectoris induced by fat ingestion in patients with coronary artery disease; ballistocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 158, no. 12, pp. 1008–1013, 1955. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. J. Albrink and E. B. Man, “Serum triglycerides in coronary artery disease,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 103, pp. 4–8, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  9. T. Regan, G. Timmis, M. Gray et al., “Myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise in fasting and lipemic subjects,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 40, pp. 624–630, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Zsoter, W. M. Fam, and M. Mcgregor, “The effect of lipemia on peripheral blood flow,” Canadian Medical Association journal, vol. 90, pp. 1203–1205, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. B. Zilversmit, “Atherogenesis: a postprandial phenomenon,” Circulation, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 473–485, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. I. Cleeman, “Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III),” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 19, pp. 2486–2497, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Berglund, J. D. Brunzell, A. C. Goldberg et al., “Evaluation and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 2969–2989, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. D. Kolovou, K. K. Anagnostopoulou, and D. V. Cokkinos, “Pathophysiology of dyslipidaemia in the metabolic syndrome,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 81, no. 956, pp. 358–366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. D. Kolovou, K. K. Anagnostopoulou, P. M. Kostakou, H. Bilianou, and D. P. Mikhailidis, “Primary and secondary hypertriglyceridaemia,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 336–343, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. J. Switzer, H. S. Mangat, and S. Karmali, “Current trends in obesity: body composition assessment, weight regulation, and emerging techniques in managing severe obesity,” Journal of Interventional Gastroenterology, vol. 3, pp. 34–36, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. A. Viljoen and A. S. Wierzbicki, “Diagnosis and treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia,” Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 505–514, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. D. Kolovou, K. K. Anagnostopoulou, A. N. Pavlidis et al., “Metabolic syndrome and gender differences in postprandial lipaemia,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 661–664, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Zerem, G. Imamović, A. Sušić, and B. Haračić, “Step-up approach to infected necrotising pancreatitis: a 20-year experience of percutaneous drainage in a single centre,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 478–483, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. Anderson, S. R. Thomson, D. L. Clarke, and I. Buccimazza, “Dyslipidaemic pancreatitis clinical assessment and analysis of disease severity and outcomes,” Pancreatology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 252–257, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. Kimura and J. Mössner, “Role of hypertriglyceridemia in the pathogenesis of experimental acute pancreatitis in rats,” International Journal of Pancreatology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 177–184, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Nielsen and F. Karpe, “Determinants of VLDL-triglycerides production,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 321–326, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. D. Dayspring and G. Pokrywka, “Impact of triglycerides on lipid and lipoprotein biology in women,” Gender Medicine, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 189–205, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. M. Hussain, S. Fatma, X. Pan, and J. Iqbal, “Intestinal lipoprotein assembly,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 281–285, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Iqbal and M. M. Hussain, “Intestinal lipid absorbtion,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 296, pp. E1183–E1194, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Tiwari and S. A. Siddiqi, “Intracellular trafficking and secretion of VLDL,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1079–1086, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S.-Q. Xiang, K. Cianflone, D. Kalant, and A. D. Sniderman, “Differential binding of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to lipoprotein lipase,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1655–1663, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Klop, A. T. D. Rego, and M. C. Cabezas, “Alcohol and plasma triglycerides,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 321–326, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. B. Whitfield, A. C. Heath, P. A. F. Madden, M. L. Pergadia, G. W. Montgomery, and N. G. Martin, “Metabolic and biochemical effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 575–586, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. D. Kolovou, K. D. Salpea, K. K. Anagnostopoulou, and D. P. Mikhailidis, “Alcohol use, vascular disease, and lipid-lowering drugs,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 318, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. C. Nierman, J. Rip, J. Twisk et al., “Gene therapy for genetic lipoprotein lipase deficiency: from promise to practice,” Netherlands Journal of Medicine, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. H. Wittrup, A. Tybjærg-Hansen, and B. G. Nordestgaard, “Lipoprotein lipase mutations, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, and risk of ischemic heart disease: a meta-analysis,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 22, pp. 2901–2907, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. M. M. Ooi, P. H. R. Barrett, D. C. Chan, and G. F. Watts, “Apolipoprotein C-III: understanding an emerging cardiovascular risk factor,” Clinical Science, vol. 114, no. 9-10, pp. 611–624, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Okubo, M. Ishihara, T. Iwasaki et al., “A novel APOA5 splicing mutation IVS2+1g>a in a Japanese chylomicronemia patient,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 24–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. I. Coca-Prieto, P. Valdivielso, G. Olivecrona et al., “Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 9, article 46, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. N. Nevin, J. D. Brunzell, and S. S. Deeb, “The LPL gene in individuals with familial combined hyperlipidemia and decreased LPL activity,” Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 869–873, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Rouis, K. A. Dugi, L. Previato et al., “Therapeutic response to medium-chain triglycerides and ω-3 fatty acids in a patient with the familial chylomicronemia syndrome,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1400–1406, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Mizushfrna, K. Ochi, N. Matsumura et al., “Prevention of hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis during pregnancy with medium-chain triglyceride nutritional support,” International Journal of Pancreatology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 187–192, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. R. Aryal, N. R. Mainali, S. Gupta, and M. Singla, “Acute pancreatitis owing to very high triglyceride levels treated with insulin and heparin infusion,” BMJ case reports, vol. 2013, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Miller, N. J. Stone, C. Ballantyne et al., “Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 20, pp. 2292–2333, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. A. Bailey, E. C. Westman, M. L. Marquart, and J. R. Guyton, “Low glycemic diet for weight loss in hypertriglyceridemic patients attending a lipid clinic,” Journal of Clinical Lipidology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 508–514, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. P. Wycherley, L. J. Moran, P. M. Clifton, M. Noakes, and G. D. Brinkworth, “Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 1281–1298, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. I. Maraki, N. Aggelopoulou, N. Christodoulou et al., “Lifestyle intervention leading to moderate weight loss normalizes postprandial triacylglycerolemia despite persisting obesity,” Obesity, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 968–976, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Maraki, F. Magkos, N. Christodoulou et al., “One day of moderate energy deficit reduces fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolemia in women: the role of calorie restriction and exercise,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 459–463, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Büning, “Gene therapy enters the pharma market: the short story of a long journey,” EMBO Molecular Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Hooper and J. Burnett, “Recent developments in the genetics of LDL deficiency,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 111–115, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. Kolovou, G. Hatzigeorgiou, C. Mihas et al., “Changes in lipids and lipoproteins after selective LDL apheresis (7-year experience),” Cholesterol, vol. 2012, Article ID 976578, 5 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. V. Lamounier-Zepter, C. Look, M. Ehrhart-Bornstein, S. R. Bornstein, S. Fischer, and U. Julius, “Lipoprotein apheresis reduces adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein serum levels,” Atherosclerosis Supplements, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 129–134, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. J. Dräger, U. Julius, K. Kraenzle et al., “DALI—the first human whole-blood low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a) apheresis system in clinical use: procedure and clinical results,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 994–1002, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. J. Betteridge, M. Bakowski, K. G. Taylor, J. P. Reckless, S. R. de Silva, and D. J. Galton, “Treatment of severe diabetic hypertriglyceridaemia by plasma exchange,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8078, p. 1368, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. B. Iskandar and K. E. Olive, “Plasmapheresis as an adjuvant therapy for hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 328, no. 5, pp. 290–294, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. Stefanutti, S. di Giacomo, A. Vivenzio et al., “Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia: a multicenter study,” Artificial Organs, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1096–1102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Furuya, M. Komatsu, K. Takahashi et al., “Plasma exchange for hypertriglyceridemic acute necrotizing pancreatitis: report of two cases,” Therapeutic Apheresis, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 454–458, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Bosch, B. Schmidt, M. Blumenstein, and H.-J. Gurland, “Lipid apheresis by hemoperfusion: in vitro efficacy and ex vivo biocompatibility of a new low-density lipoprotein adsorber compatible with human whole blood,” Artificial Organs, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 640–652, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Bosch, “Direct adsorption of lipoproteins from whole blood by DALI apheresis: technique and effects,” Therapeutic Apheresis, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 239–243, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Bosch, S. Gahr, U. Belschner, C. Schaefer, A. Lennertz, and J. Rammo, “Direct adsorption of low-density lipoprotein by DALI-LDL-apheresis: results of a prospective long-term multicenter follow-up covering 12 291 sessions,” Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 210–218, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. V. Otto and A. Schön, “The DALI system,” Artificial Organs, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 919–920, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  58. T. Bosch, O. Heinemann, C. Duhr et al., “Effect of low-dose citrate anticoagulation on the clinical safety and efficacy of direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI apheresis) in hypercholesterolemic patients: a prospective controlled clinical trial,” Artificial Organs, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 790–796, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Jansen, S. Banyai, S. Schmaldienst et al., “Direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) from whole blood: first long- term clinical experience with a new LDL-apheresis system for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolaemia,” Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 61–69, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. Bosch, A. Lennertz, B. Kordes, and W. Samtleben, “Low density lipoprotein hemoperfusion by direct adsorption of lipoproteins from whole blood (DALI apheresis): clinical experience from a single center,” Therapeutic Apheresis, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 209–213, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. Stefanutti, S. Di Giacomo, M. Di Caro, A. Vivenzio, and A. Musca, “DALI low-density lipoprotein apheresis in homozygous and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemic patients using low-dose citrate anticoagulation,” Therapeutic Apheresis, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 364–371, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. Ramírez-Bueno, C. Salazar-Ramírez, F. Cota-Delgado, M. V. De La Torre-Prados, and P. Valdivielso, “Plasmapheresis as treatment for hyperlipidemic pancreatitis,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 160–163, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. F. S. C. L. de Castro, A. M. R. Nascimento, I. A. Coutinho, F. R. de Fernandez Y Alcazar, and J. M. Filho, “Plasmapheresis as a therapeutic approach for hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis,” Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 302–307, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. N. G. Maher and H. Ramaswamykanive, “Use of plasmapheresis in managing the diagnostic dilemma of symptomatic hypertriglyceridemia,” Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 501373, 3 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. N. Ewald and H. U. Kloer, “Treatment options for severe hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG): the role of apheresis,” Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements, vol. 7, supplement 1, pp. 31–35, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J.-H. Yeh, J.-H. Chen, and H.-C. Chiu, “Plasmapheresis for hyperlipidemic pancreatitis,” Journal of Clinical Apheresis, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 181–185, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. Altun, G. Eren, Z. Cukurova, O. Hergünsel, and L. Yasar, “An alternative treatment in hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: plasmapheresis,” Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 252–254, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. Basar, A. K. Uzum, B. Canbaz et al., “Therapeutic apheresis for severe hypertriglyceridemia in pregnancy,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 287, no. 5, pp. 839–843, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. Reper, R. Attou, L. Gucciardo, P. Gottignies, J. Devriendt, and J. Massaut, “Early plasmapheresis as a successful treatment in hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in first trimester pregnancy following in vitro fertilization,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 179, pp. 257–258, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Vandenbroucke, S. Seconda, L. Lassel, G. Le Bouar, and P. Poulain, “Acute pancreatitis induced by major hypertriglyceridemia during pregnancy. A case report,” Journal de Gynecologie Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 436–439, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. Niro, V. Sapin, J. M. Constantin et al., “Management of gestational hypertriglyceridemia by plasmapheresis,” Gynecologie Obstetrique Fertilite, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1133–1135, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. V. Exbrayat, J. Morel, J.-P. De Filippis, G. Tourne, R. Jospe, and C. Auboyer, “Hypertriglycideraemia-induced pancreatitis in pregnancy. A case report,” Annales Francaises d'Anesthesie et de Reanimation, vol. 26, no. 7-8, pp. 677–679, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Madhra, R. M. Noh, N. N. Zammitt, A. W. Patrick, and C. D. B. Love, “A complicated pregnancy in a patient with lipodystrophic diabetes attributable to a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) mutation,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. e398–e401, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J.-P. Routy, G. H. R. Smith, D. W. Blank, and B. M. Gilfix, “Plasmapheresis in the treatment of an acute pancreatitis due to protease inhibitor-induced hypertriglyceridemia,” Journal of Clinical Apheresis, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 157–159, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. W. J. Flynn, P. G. Freeman, and L. G. Wickboldt, “Pancreatitis associated with isotretinoin-induced hypertriglyceridemia,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 107, no. 1, article 63, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Seah, K. Lin, D. Tai, S. T. Lim, and A. Chan, “Conservative management of L-asparaginase-induced hypertriglyceridemia in an adult patient: a case report and review of the literature,” Onkologie, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 596–598, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. E.-C. Zborovszky, L. Santana-Cabrera, A. Ramírez Rodríguez, and C. Díaz Mendoza, “Plasmapheresis in the treatment of an acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia,” Medicina Clinica, vol. 142, no. 6, p. 282, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. Stefanutti, S. Di Giacomo, and G. Labbadia, “Timing clinical events in the treatment of pancreatitis and hypertriglyceridemia with therapeutic plasmapheresis,” Transfusion and Apheresis Science, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 3–7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. F. Anderson, S. Z. Mbatha, and S. R. Thomson, “The early management of pancreatitis associated with hypertriglyceridaemia,” South African Journal of Surgery, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 82–84, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Schwartz, J. L. Winters, A. Padmanabhan et al., “Guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis in clinical practice—evidence-based approach from the writing committee of the american society for apheresis: the sixth special issue,” Journal of Clinical Apheresis, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 145–284, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus