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Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Volume 2009, Article ID 965209, 8 pages
Research Article

Seizure (Ictal)—EEG Characteristics in Subgroups of Depressive Disorder in Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)—A Preliminary Study and Multivariate Approach

1Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Energy and Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Received 24 October 2008; Revised 1 March 2009; Accepted 2 April 2009

Academic Editor: Fabio Babiloni

Copyright © 2009 Björn Wahlund et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. Examine frequency distributions of ictal EEG after ECT stimulation in diagnostic subgroups of depression. Methods. EEG registration was consecutively monitored in 33 patients after ECT stimulation. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM IV and subdivided into: (1) major depressive disorder with psychotic features , (2) unipolar depression , and (3) bipolar depression . Results. Results indicate that the diagnostically subgroups differ in their ictal EEG frequency spectrumml: (1) psychotic depression has a high occurrence of delta and theta waves, (2) unipolar depression has high occurrence of delta, theta and gamma waves, and (3) bipolar depression has a high occurrence of gamma waves. A linear discriminant function separated the three clinical groups with an accuracy of 94%. Conclusion. Psychotic depressed patients differ from bipolar depression in their frequency based on probability distribution of ictal EEG. Psychotic depressed patients show more prominent slowing of EEG than nonpsychotic depressed patients. Thus the EEG results may be supportive in classifying subgroups of depression already at the start of the ECT treatment.