#### Abstract

The passivity problem for a class of stochastic neural networks systems (SNNs) with varying delay and leakage delay has been further studied in this paper. By constructing a more effective Lyapunov functional, employing the free-weighting matrix approach, and combining with integral inequality technic and stochastic analysis theory, the delay-dependent conditions have been proposed such that SNNs are asymptotically stable with guaranteed performance. The time-varying delay is divided into several subintervals and two adjustable parameters are introduced; more information about time delay is utilised and less conservative results have been obtained. Examples are provided to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed method and simulations are given to show the impact of leakage delay on stability of SNNs.

#### 1. Introduction

During the past several decades, neural networks have gained great attention because of their potential application in pattern classification, reconstruction of moving image, and combinatorial optimization. In addition, time delay is a natural phenomenon frequently encountered in various dynamic systems such as electronic, chemical systems, long transmission lines in pneumatic systems, biological systems, and economic and rolling mill systems. Delays in neural networks can cause oscillation, instability, and divergence, which are very often the main sources of poor performance of designed neural networks. So the stability analysis and state estimation of neural networks with various time delays have been widely investigated by many researchers; see [1–8] and the references therein.

Furthermore, when modeling real nervous systems, stochastic disturbance is one of main resources of the performance degradations when applying the neural networks, because the synaptic transmission is a noisy process introduced by random fluctuation from the release of neurotransmitter and other probabilistic causes. In recent years, the stability analysis for stochastic neural networks with time delay has become a hot research topic; by virtue of various inequality technics and -matrix theory, many important research results about neural networks with different type of time delays, such as constant delay, time-varying delay, or distributed delay, have been reported; see, for example, [8–14] and the references therein.

The passivity theory, which originated from circuit theory, plays an important role in the analysis of stability of linear or nonlinear systems. The main character of passivity theory is that the passive properties of a system can keep the system internally stable. Because it is a very effective tool in studying the stability of uncertain or nonlinear systems, the passivity theory has been used widely in fuzzy control [15], complexity [16], synchronization [17], signal processing [18], and adaptive control [19].

Recently, based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory, passivity and dissipativity analysis of neural networks with various delays and uncertainties have been discussed and many interesting results have been reported [20–28].

In [29–35], based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii, LMI method, and a delay fractioning technique, the passivity and robust passivity of stochastic neural networks with delays and uncertainties have been studied; some sufficient conditions on the passivity of neural networks with delays have been obtained. In [31], authors investigated passivity of the stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays and parameters uncertainties by applying free-weighting matrix and the lower conservatism results are obtained by comparing with the existing results.

On the other hand, in many practical problems, a typical time delay called leakage delay or forgetting delay exists in dynamical system, which has a tendency to destabilize the system; it has been one of the research hot topics recently and many research achievements have been reported [20, 36–42].

As pointed out in [36], neural networks with leakage delay are a class of important neural networks, and time delay in the leakage term also has great impact on the dynamics of neural networks; sometimes it has more significant effect than other kinds of delays on dynamics of neural networks; the stability analysis of neural networks system involving leakage delay has been researched extensively; see, for example, [37–40] and the references therein. Very recently, in [42], by virtue of free weight matrix and LMIs method, the passivity problem for a class of stochastic neural networks with leakage delay is studied; the sufficient condition making the system passive is presented, but leakage delay under consideration is a constant; but, in practical dynamical systems, the leakage delay can be time-varying, which is often more general and complex than leakage delay being a constant. To the best of authors’ knowledge, no research results have been reported about the condition that leakage delay is time-varying, which motivates our idea.

Motivated by the aforementioned discussions, this paper focuses on the passivity problem for a class of stochastic neural networks (SNNs) system with time-varying delay and leakage delay; by constructing a new Lyapunov functional, a set of sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the passivity performance for a class of stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays and leakage delay. By virtue of the delay decomposition idea [8], combining with some integral inequality technic [7], or free-weighting matrix approach [9, 26], two adjustable parameters are introduced and made full use of. All results are established in the form of LMIs and can be solved easily by using the interior algorithms, which can be efficiently solved by Matlab LMI Toolbox and no tuning of parameters is required. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed approach.

The main contributions of this paper are summarized as follows:(i)The leakage delay studied is time-varying, so the research model is more general and complex than that in [42].(ii)The neuron activation function is assumed to satisfy sector-bounded condition, which is more general and less restrictive than Lipschitz condition, so the less conservatism results can be expected.(iii)The derivative of time-varying can be extended to be more than 1.(iv)How the leakage delay affects the stability result is discussed.

*Notation*. Throughout this paper, if not explicit, matrices are assumed to have compatible dimensions. The notation means that the symmetric matrix is positive-definite (positive-semidefinite, negative, and negative-semidefinite). and denote the minimum and the maximum eigenvalue of the corresponding matrix; the superscript “” stands for the transpose of a matrix; the shorthand denotes the block diagonal matrix; represents the Euclidean norm for vector or the spectral norm of matrices. refers to an identity matrix of appropriate dimensions. stands for the mathematical expectation; means the symmetric terms. Sometimes, the arguments of a function will be omitted in the analysis when no confusion can arise.

#### 2. System Description

Consider the SNNs with time-varying delay as follows:where is the neural state vector and is the input. is the output; are the connection weight matrix and the delayed connection weight matrix, respectively; is a positive diagonal matrix; is the neuron activation function with ; denotes the number of neurons in neural networks; is an -dimension Brownian motion defined on a complete probability space (), satisfying is the transmission delay and is assumed to satisfy is the leakage delay that satisfieswhere are some positive scalar constants.

*Assumption 1. *For and , , the neuron activation function is continuous and bounded and satisfieswhere and are some constant known matrices.

*Remark 2. *In this paper, the above assumption is made on neuron activation function, which is called sector-bounded neuron activation function. When , condition (5) becomesSo it is less restrictive than the descriptions on both the sigmoid activation functions and the Lipschitz-type activation functions.

*Assumption 3. *There exist three constant matrices , , and such that

*Definition 4 (see [22]). *The delayed SNNs are said to stochastically passive if there exists a scalar such thatfor all and for all solution of (1) with .

*Remark 5. *The different output equation can lead to different definitions. In [31, 42], the output equation expression is and , respectively. In order to compare our result with that in [42], we take , so we have the same definition as that in [42].

At first, we give the following lemmas which will be used frequently in the proof of the our main results.

Lemma 6 (see [4]). *For any constant symmetric positive defined matrix , scalar , and the vector function , the following inequality holds:*

Lemma 7 (see [5]). *For given proper dimensions constant matrices , and , where and , we have such that only and only if *

Lemma 8 (see [7]). *For given function satisfying , there exist nonnegative functions and satisfying such that the following equation holds:*

Lemma 9 (see [7]). *For any real vectors a and b and any matrix with appropriate dimensions, it follows that .*

#### 3. Main Results

In this section, a delay-dependent leakage delay method is developed to guarantee the stochastic passive results of system (1), so we have the following Theorem 10.

Theorem 10. *Given scalars , , , , , and and proper matrix , the SNNs described by (1) are stochastically passive in the sense of Definition 4, if there exist positive matrices , , , and , positive diagonal matrices , positive constants , , , and real matrices , , and of appropriate dimensions such that the following LMIs hold:**where ** and are defined as replacing in by and , respectively. Consider*

*Proof. *For the convenience of proof, we denotethen system (1) can be rewritten asChoose a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional candidate as , wherewhere and and . Then, the stochastic differential of along system (1) can be obtained as follows:whereSo by Lemma 9, the following inequalities can be obtained:where ,By Lemma 6, it is easy to know thatFor arbitrary matrices , , , , and with compatible dimensions, we havewherewhereFrom Assumptions 3 and (12), we can getIn addition, from Assumption 1, the following inequalities can be deduced:It is clear that for any scalars and , there exist diagonal matrices , , and such that the following inequality hold:whereIn order to get the passive condition, we introduce the following inequality:On the other hand, for formulas (25)–(28), we further haveAt the same time, from the character of Itô integrals, we can obtain thatBy substituting (22)-(23) into (20) and considering (36), then taking expectation on both sides of (20), and then using (38), we can getBy Lemma 8, there exist nonnegative functions and satisfying such thatSubstituting (43) into (42), then (42) can be rewritten aswhere , .

So we can get that the following matrix inequalities hold:By virtue of Lemma 7, (45) and (46) are equivalent to (13) and (14), respectively, so we can get thatthen integrating on both sides of (47) from to , we can obtainIt indicates that system (1) is stochastically passive in the sense of Definition 4. This completes the proof.

*Remark 11. *In [42], the delay interval is divided into three subintervals, which are , , and . In this paper, the new Lyapunov function proposed in Theorem 10 is based on the decomposition of delay interval into four subintervals, which are , , , and . By using the lower bound and upper bound of delay derivative , the idea of delay fraction can be successfully applied to cases of both constant and time-varying delay, so less conservatism results can be expected.

When the leakage delay is constant, namely, and , neural network system (1) will become the following model:This system has been studied in [42]; then for system (49) we have the following Corollary 12.

Corollary 12. *Given scalars , , , , and and proper matrices , the SNNs described by (49) are stochastically passive in the sense of Definition 4, if there exist positive matrices , , and , positive diagonal matrices , positive constants , , , and real matrices , and of appropriate dimensions such that the following LMIs hold:**where ** and are defined as replacing in by and , respectively; the other terms have the same expression as that in Theorem 10.*

It is well known that the Markovian jump systems (MJSs) are a special class of hybrid systems, which have the advantage in modeling the dynamic systems subject to abrupt variation in their structures, such as component failures and sudden environmental disturbance. Many researches about the stability analysis, impulsive response, and state estimation on the neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters have been obtained; see [44–47] and references therein. Recently [48] has studied the passivity of stochastic neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters; the same method can be used to a system with Markovian jumping parameters and it still leaves much room to reduce the conservatism, which motivates our aim.

Let , , be a right-continuous Markov chain defined on a complete probability space and taking discrete values in a finite state space with generator given bywhere and is the transition rate from to while .

For the purpose of simplicity, in the sequel, for each , , , and are denoted by , , , and so on. Throughout the paper, we assume that and are independent. Then when the leakage delay does not exist, system (1) will become the one as follows:This system has been studied in [43] and good results have been obtained. In order to testify the effectiveness of our methods, we give the following Theorem 13.

Theorem 13. *Given scalars , , , , and and proper matrices , the SNNs described by (1) are stochastically passive in the sense of Definition 4, if there exist positive matrices , , , and , positive diagonal matrices , positive constants , , , and real matrices , and of appropriate dimensions such that the following LMIs hold:**where *