Research Article

Fusing Swarm Intelligence and Self-Assembly for Optimizing Echo State Networks

Figure 2

Three growing neural networks and their interpretations as static neural networks based on the SINOSA model. The three large spheres represent cells, the smaller circles represent growth cones, and the lines between cells and growth cones denote connections (axons). The growth cones that are drawn with a “+” symbol have a positive weight field, and those that are drawn with a “−” symbol have a negative weight field. (a) The growth cones and axons that belong to a particular growing network are all shown with the same line-style (solid, dotted, or dash-dot). The straight dashed lines between growth cones indicate two of the six growth cone neighborhoods. Growth cones within a neighborhood interact with one another according to the canonical PSO algorithm. All three growing networks share the same three cells. (b) The solid-line growing network is shown without the other two. (c) The corresponding static network to which the solid-line growing network is mapped based on the proximity of its growth cones to their target cells. The numbers represent connection weights.