Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience

Volume 2018, Article ID 4281230, 9 pages

https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4281230

## Correlation Assisted Strong Uncorrelating Transform Complex Common Spatial Patterns for Spatially Distant Channel Data

^{1}Department of Computer Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Republic of Korea^{2}School of Electrical Engineering, College of Creative Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Cheolsoo Park; rk.ca.wk@oosloehckrap

Youngjoo Kim and Jiwoo You contributed equally to this work.

Received 28 September 2017; Revised 26 February 2018; Accepted 1 April 2018; Published 15 May 2018

Academic Editor: Toshihisa Tanaka

Copyright © 2018 Youngjoo Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

The Strong Uncorrelating Transform Complex Common Spatial Patterns (SUTCCSP) algorithm, designed for multichannel data analysis, has a limitation on keeping the correlation information among channels during the simultaneous diagonalization process of the covariance and pseudocovariance matrices. This paper focuses on the importance of preserving the correlation information among multichannel data and proposes the correlation assisted SUTCCSP (CASUT) algorithm to address this issue. The performance of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated by classifying the motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) dataset. The features were first extracted using CSP algorithms including the proposed method, and then the random forest classifier was utilized for the classification. Experiments using CASUT yielded an average classification accuracy of 78.10 (%), which significantly outperformed those of original CSP, Complex Common Spatial Patterns (CCSP), and SUTCCSP with -values less than 0.01, tested by the Wilcoxon signed rank test.

#### 1. Introduction

Noninvasive measurements of physiological signals including electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), and electromyogram (EMG) have become widely used throughout the biomedical industry [1–5]. Out of the various feature engineering methods, researchers have shown that the common spatial patterns (CSP) algorithm is a strong feature extraction algorithm for multichannel EEG data, yielding high performance for classification problems [6, 7]. CSP is a mathematical methodology to decompose spatial subcomponents of multivariate signals, whose variance difference between two classes is maximized [8]. CSP designs spatial filters for the multichannel EEG signals based on the spatial distribution of neural activities in the cortex areas [6, 7] and adopts a supervised learning approach, while the other spatial filter algorithms such as principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) are designed in an unsupervised manner [9, 10].

Furthermore, a complex version of CSP, termed CCSP, uses the covariance matrix that maintains the power sum information of the real and imaginary parts of the complex-valued data [11]. Another complex-valued CSP algorithm, termed analytic signal-based CSP (ACSP), was proposed by Falzon et al. to discriminate different mental tasks [12, 13]. However, given that the Hilbert transformed analytic signals could only produce circular signals (rotation invariant probability distribution) and that physiological signals are improper (mismatch of power between different channel data), the augmented complex CSP was introduced to fully exploit the second-order statistics of noncircular complex vectors [11, 14].

Strong Uncorrelating Transform CCSP (SUTCCSP), which is an advanced version of the augmented complex CSP, was applied to the two-class classification problem of motor imagery EEG and produced a minimum of 4% improvement over the conventional CSP, ACSP, and augmented CSP [11]. This is due to the power difference information preserved in the pseudocovariance matrix, accompanied with the sum of power maintained in the covariance matrix. However, during the simultaneous diagonalization process of the covariance and pseudocovariance matrices, the correlation term vanishes owing to the process of applying the strong uncorrelating transform [11, 15, 16]. Such effort to preserve correlation has not been made so far for the CSP algorithm, and the correlation assisted version of SUTCCSP is newly proposed in this paper.

The basic terminologies and procedure of SUTCCSP and the proposed method are explained in Section 2, followed by extensive simulation results on the benchmark motor imagery dataset of 105 subjects in Section 3. Finally, the concluding remarks are given in Section 4 with additional discussions in terms of the performance difference of distinct channel pairs that have less correlation compared with results of Section 3.

#### 2. Proposed Method

Here we explain SUT based on the terminologies used in [9, 14] and show how the correlation information is utilized with CSP algorithms [11, 16].

Let be a complex-valued random vector such aswhere is , is the real part, and is the imaginary part of a complex random vector. is a zero-mean complex-valued matrix consisting of values with the form of (1), where denotes the two different classes, . has the dimension of the number of channels by the number of samples. Then the covariance (**C**) and pseudocovariance (**P**) matrices are defined as follows: where is the statistical expected value operator and is the conjugate transpose. Then, we can define the composite covariance () and pseudocovariance () matrices as follows:Here can then be decomposed into and as follows: where has eigenvectors in each column for the corresponding diagonal eigenvalues of . Note that and consist of real elements and the nondiagonal elements of are zero. This allows to be whitened by the whitening matrix in the original CCSP algorithm, resulting in , where denotes the identity matrix [11].

Using the whitening matrix from the original CCSP algorithm [11], the pseudocovariance matrix can also be decomposed using Takagi’s factorization as shown in the following equation [17]: where and are yielded by symmetric matrices. This leads to a derivation of the strong uncorrelating transform matrix as follows:

Using the matrix , it is now possible to diagonalize the covariance and pseudocovariance matrices simultaneously. Firstly, the composite covariance matrix can be diagonalized as follows: where and are the estimations of eigenvectors and eigenvalues of , respectively. Next, the composite pseudocovariance can also be diagonalized as follows:where is the strong uncorrelating transform matrix for the pseudocovariance and and are the estimations of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of , respectively. Therefore, the two spatial filters and can be designed as follows:

Finally, the spatially filtered vector, , is calculated as follows:Let be the number of data channels, and the th row vector in ; where corresponds to each row of the new matrix . Now the final subfeatures, and , by SUTCCSP are calculated as follows: where varies between 1 and and is the variance of . Here, selecting one pair of filter is equivalent to choosing the first and last rows in each real and imaginary part of the covariance and pseudocovariance matrices, separately. The number of filter pairs was chosen to maximize the performance for each subject. Such consideration of selecting the appropriate number of filter pairs could be important in real time applications. Next, Pearson’s correlation coefficient for and is calculated as follows [17]: where is the standard deviation of and is the mean of . The maximum number of correlation coefficients between the real and imaginary parts of (1) is equal to the number of channel pairs due to the multichannel attribute of the data. The high dimension of the number of channel pairs should be reduced owing to the curse of dimensionality. PCA is applied to reduce the high dimension in this paper, due to its simple implementation and fast speed [18, 19].

Let be the matrix containing for channel pairs, where is the number of channels. By applying PCA to the correlation coefficient matrices, the principal component coefficients, known as loadings, are estimated [20]. Here we will define as an -by- matrix of loadings, where* L* is the reduced number of dimensions. An additional subfeature containing the correlation information of two data channels is calculated as follows:

The final feature matrices for two different classes are , , and for each class. In this paper, the covariance matrix information from the original CSP is added to the feature matrices of CCSP, SUTCCSP, and CASUT, which could provide a fair test to compare CSP with these three algorithms. Accordingly, the feature matrices of CASUT were designed to contain the information of variance, power sum, and difference, as well as the correlation information lost due to the strong uncorrelating transform.

#### 3. Experiments

##### 3.1. Data Acquisition

As Park et al. used the Physiobank Motor Mental Imagery (MMI) database to test the performance of SUTCCSP, this study uses the same dataset in order to compare the proposed CASUT with the former CSP algorithms including SUTCCSP [11, 21–23]. Out of the 109 subjects who conducted the left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks, three subjects (S088, S092, and S100) had damaged recordings, and one subject (S104) had an insufficient amount of data [15, 24]. For these reasons, 105 subjects were used to examine the classification accuracy of CASUT. All subject data consist of 45 trials of performing the left- and right-hand tasks, which were recorded using 64 channel electrodes with the 10-10 EEG system and sampled by 160 Hz [25].

In order to verify the performance of CASUT in preserving the correlation information, the channel pairs that yield high correlation coefficients were selected (values over 0.9 and less than or equal to 1). All trials for the left-hand motor imagery task of 105 subjects were combined into one single trial set, and the correlation coefficients of the all possible distinct 2016 pairs among the 64 channels were calculated. Then the average of the correlation coefficient values over all trials of the left-hand task was calculated, in order to determine which channel pair has a high correlation coefficient. The same calculation was conducted on the trials of the right-hand motor imagery task. The channel pairs, whose correlations were in the range of the following equation, were denoted aswhere is a pair of two distinct channels and , are the correlation coefficients between and , and is a number in the range of .

The EEG recordings were preprocessed using the fifth-order Butterworth IIR bandpass filter extracting the frequency components into 8–25 Hz [6, 26, 27]. Such preprocessing techniques were identical to the preprocessing techniques used by Park et al. [11].

##### 3.2. Classification Results

###### 3.2.1. Analysis of 105 Subjects

The average classification accuracies over all 105 subjects were calculated in order to compare the proposed algorithm with CSP, CCSP, and SUTCCSP. Table 1 shows the average classification rates with the standard deviations for each algorithm. Note that the classification rate of CASUT outperforms those of CSP, CCSP, and SUTCCSP.