Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Fusion of Facial Expressions and EEG for Multimodal Emotion Recognition Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/2107451/ This paper proposes two multimodal fusion methods between brain and peripheral signals for emotion recognition. The input signals are electroencephalogram and facial expression. The stimuli are based on a subset of movie clips that correspond to four specific areas of valance-arousal emotional space (happiness, neutral, sadness, and fear). For facial expression detection, four basic emotion states (happiness, neutral, sadness, and fear) are detected by a neural network classifier. For EEG detection, four basic emotion states and three emotion intensity levels (strong, ordinary, and weak) are detected by two support vector machines (SVM) classifiers, respectively. Emotion recognition is based on two decision-level fusion methods of both EEG and facial expression detections by using a sum rule or a production rule. Twenty healthy subjects attended two experiments. The results show that the accuracies of two multimodal fusion detections are 81.25% and 82.75%, respectively, which are both higher than that of facial expression (74.38%) or EEG detection (66.88%). The combination of facial expressions and EEG information for emotion recognition compensates for their defects as single information sources. Yongrui Huang, Jianhao Yang, Pengkai Liao, and Jiahui Pan Copyright © 2017 Yongrui Huang et al. All rights reserved. The Artificial Neural Networks Based on Scalarization Method for a Class of Bilevel Biobjective Programming Problem Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/1853131/ A two-stage artificial neural network (ANN) based on scalarization method is proposed for bilevel biobjective programming problem (BLBOP). The induced set of the BLBOP is firstly expressed as the set of minimal solutions of a biobjective optimization problem by using scalar approach, and then the whole efficient set of the BLBOP is derived by the proposed two-stage ANN for exploring the induced set. In order to illustrate the proposed method, seven numerical examples are tested and compared with results in the classical literature. Finally, a practical problem is solved by the proposed algorithm. Tao Zhang, Zhong Chen, June Liu, and Xiong Li Copyright © 2017 Tao Zhang et al. All rights reserved. New Dandelion Algorithm Optimizes Extreme Learning Machine for Biomedical Classification Problems Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/4523754/ Inspired by the behavior of dandelion sowing, a new novel swarm intelligence algorithm, namely, dandelion algorithm (DA), is proposed for global optimization of complex functions in this paper. In DA, the dandelion population will be divided into two subpopulations, and different subpopulations will undergo different sowing behaviors. Moreover, another sowing method is designed to jump out of local optimum. In order to demonstrate the validation of DA, we compare the proposed algorithm with other existing algorithms, including bat algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and enhanced fireworks algorithm. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm seems much superior to other algorithms. At the same time, the proposed algorithm can be applied to optimize extreme learning machine (ELM) for biomedical classification problems, and the effect is considerable. At last, we use different fusion methods to form different fusion classifiers, and the fusion classifiers can achieve higher accuracy and better stability to some extent. Xiguang Li, Shoufei Han, Liang Zhao, Changqing Gong, and Xiaojing Liu Copyright © 2017 Xiguang Li et al. All rights reserved. Hyperbolic Modeling of Subthalamic Nucleus Cells to Investigate the Effect of Dopamine Depletion Wed, 06 Sep 2017 07:00:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/5472752/ To investigate how different types of neurons can produce well-known spiking patterns, a new computationally efficient model is proposed in this paper. This model can help realize the neuronal interconnection issues. The model can demonstrate various neuronal behaviors observed in vivo through simple parameter modification. The behaviors include tonic and phasic spiking, tonic and phasic bursting, class 1 and class 2 excitability, rebound spike, rebound burst, subthreshold oscillation, and accommodated spiking along with inhibition neuron responses. Here, we investigate the neuronal spiking patterns in Parkinson’s disease through our proposed model. Abnormal pattern of subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson’s disease can be studied through variations in the shape and frequency of firing patterns. Our proposed model introduces mathematical equations, where these patterns can be derived and clearly differentiated from one another. The irregular and arrhythmic behaviors of subthalamic nucleus firing pattern under normal conditions can easily be transformed to those caused by Parkinson’s disease through simple parameter modifications in the proposed model. This model can explicitly show the change of neuronal activity patterns in Parkinson’s disease, which may eventually lead to effective treatment with deep brain stimulation devices. Mohammad Daneshzand, Miad Faezipour, and Buket D. Barkana Copyright © 2017 Mohammad Daneshzand et al. All rights reserved. Thai Finger-Spelling Recognition Using a Cascaded Classifier Based on Histogram of Orientation Gradient Features Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/9026375/ Hand posture recognition is an essential module in applications such as human-computer interaction (HCI), games, and sign language systems, in which performance and robustness are the primary requirements. In this paper, we proposed automatic classification to recognize 21 hand postures that represent letters in Thai finger-spelling based on Histogram of Orientation Gradient (HOG) feature (which is applied with more focus on the information within certain region of the image rather than each single pixel) and Adaptive Boost (i.e., AdaBoost) learning technique to select the best weak classifier and to construct a strong classifier that consists of several weak classifiers to be cascaded in detection architecture. We collected 21 static hand posture images from 10 subjects for testing and training in Thai letters finger-spelling. The parameters for the training process have been adjusted in three experiments, false positive rates (FPR), true positive rates (TPR), and number of training stages (N), to achieve the most suitable training model for each hand posture. All cascaded classifiers are loaded into the system simultaneously to classify different hand postures. A correlation coefficient is computed to distinguish the hand postures that are similar. The system achieves approximately 78% accuracy on average on all classifier experiments. Kittasil Silanon Copyright © 2017 Kittasil Silanon. All rights reserved. Classification of Hand Grasp Kinetics and Types Using Movement-Related Cortical Potentials and EEG Rhythms Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/7470864/ Detection of single-trial movement intentions from EEG is paramount for brain-computer interfacing in neurorehabilitation. These movement intentions contain task-related information and if this is decoded, the neurorehabilitation could potentially be optimized. The aim of this study was to classify single-trial movement intentions associated with two levels of force and speed and three different grasp types using EEG rhythms and components of the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) as features. The feature importance was used to estimate encoding of discriminative information. Two data sets were used. 29 healthy subjects executed and imagined different hand movements, while EEG was recorded over the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. The following features were extracted: delta, theta, mu/alpha, beta, and gamma rhythms, readiness potential, negative slope, and motor potential of the MRCP. Sequential forward selection was performed, and classification was performed using linear discriminant analysis and support vector machines. Limited classification accuracies were obtained from the EEG rhythms and MRCP-components: (grasp types), (kinetic profiles, motor execution), and (kinetic profiles, motor imagination). Delta activity contributed the most but all features provided discriminative information. These findings suggest that information from the entire EEG spectrum is needed to discriminate between task-related parameters from single-trial movement intentions. Mads Jochumsen, Cecilie Rovsing, Helene Rovsing, Imran Khan Niazi, Kim Dremstrup, and Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako Copyright © 2017 Mads Jochumsen et al. All rights reserved. A New Hybrid Model FPA-SVM Considering Cointegration for Particular Matter Concentration Forecasting: A Case Study of Kunming and Yuxi, China Mon, 28 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/2843651/ Air pollution in China is becoming more serious especially for the particular matter (PM) because of rapid economic growth and fast expansion of urbanization. To solve the growing environment problems, daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentration data form January 1, 2015, to August 23, 2016, in Kunming and Yuxi (two important cities in Yunnan Province, China) are used to present a new hybrid model CI-FPA-SVM to forecast air PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in this paper. The proposed model involves two parts. Firstly, due to its deficiency to assess the possible correlation between different variables, the cointegration theory is introduced to get the input-output relationship and then obtain the nonlinear dynamical system with support vector machine (SVM), in which the parameters c and g are optimized by flower pollination algorithm (FPA). Six benchmark models, including FPA-SVM, CI-SVM, CI-GA-SVM, CI-PSO-SVM, CI-FPA-NN, and multiple linear regression model, are considered to verify the superiority of the proposed hybrid model. The empirical study results demonstrate that the proposed model CI-FPA-SVM is remarkably superior to all considered benchmark models for its high prediction accuracy, and the application of the model for forecasting can give effective monitoring and management of further air quality. Weide Li, Demeng Kong, and Jinran Wu Copyright © 2017 Weide Li et al. All rights reserved. Cognitive-Based EEG BCIs and Human Brain-Robot Interactions Mon, 28 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/9471841/ Wei Li, Jing Jin, and Feng Duan Copyright © 2017 Wei Li et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Parameter Selection for Support Vector Machine Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm: A Case Study of Grid-Connected PV System Power Prediction Tue, 22 Aug 2017 10:25:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/7273017/ Predicting the output power of photovoltaic system with nonstationarity and randomness, an output power prediction model for grid-connected PV systems is proposed based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and support vector machine (SVM) optimized with an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. First, according to the weather forecast data sets on the prediction date, the time series data of output power on a similar day with 15-minute intervals are built. Second, the time series data of the output power are decomposed into a series of components, including some intrinsic mode components IMFn and a trend component Res, at different scales using EMD. The corresponding SVM prediction model is established for each IMF component and trend component, and the SVM model parameters are optimized with the artificial bee colony algorithm. Finally, the prediction results of each model are reconstructed, and the predicted values of the output power of the grid-connected PV system can be obtained. The prediction model is tested with actual data, and the results show that the power prediction model based on the EMD and ABC-SVM has a faster calculation speed and higher prediction accuracy than do the single SVM prediction model and the EMD-SVM prediction model without optimization. Xiang-ming Gao, Shi-feng Yang, and San-bo Pan Copyright © 2017 Xiang-ming Gao et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Multiple Kernel Learning Algorithms Using Low-Rank Representation Tue, 22 Aug 2017 07:45:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/3678487/ Unlike Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) allows datasets to be free to choose the useful kernels based on their distribution characteristics rather than a precise one. It has been shown in the literature that MKL holds superior recognition accuracy compared with SVM, however, at the expense of time consuming computations. This creates analytical and computational difficulties in solving MKL algorithms. To overcome this issue, we first develop a novel kernel approximation approach for MKL and then propose an efficient Low-Rank MKL (LR-MKL) algorithm by using the Low-Rank Representation (LRR). It is well-acknowledged that LRR can reduce dimension while retaining the data features under a global low-rank constraint. Furthermore, we redesign the binary-class MKL as the multiclass MKL based on pairwise strategy. Finally, the recognition effect and efficiency of LR-MKL are verified on the datasets Yale, ORL, LSVT, and Digit. Experimental results show that the proposed LR-MKL algorithm is an efficient kernel weights allocation method in MKL and boosts the performance of MKL largely. Wenjia Niu, Kewen Xia, Baokai Zu, and Jianchuan Bai Copyright © 2017 Wenjia Niu et al. All rights reserved. Chaotic Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Bit Permutation and Dynamic DNA Encoding Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/6919675/ With the help of the fact that chaos is sensitive to initial conditions and pseudorandomness, combined with the spatial configurations in the DNA molecule’s inherent and unique information processing ability, a novel image encryption algorithm based on bit permutation and dynamic DNA encoding is proposed here. The algorithm first uses Keccak to calculate the hash value for a given DNA sequence as the initial value of a chaotic map; second, it uses a chaotic sequence to scramble the image pixel locations, and the butterfly network is used to implement the bit permutation. Then, the image is coded into a DNA matrix dynamic, and an algebraic operation is performed with the DNA sequence to realize the substitution of the pixels, which further improves the security of the encryption. Finally, the confusion and diffusion properties of the algorithm are further enhanced by the operation of the DNA sequence and the ciphertext feedback. The results of the experiment and security analysis show that the algorithm not only has a large key space and strong sensitivity to the key but can also effectively resist attack operations such as statistical analysis and exhaustive analysis. Xuncai Zhang, Feng Han, and Ying Niu Copyright © 2017 Xuncai Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Gaze Estimation Method Using Analysis of Electrooculogram Signals and Kinect Sensor Sun, 20 Aug 2017 07:53:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/2074752/ A gaze estimation system is one of the communication methods for severely disabled people who cannot perform gestures and speech. We previously developed an eye tracking method using a compact and light electrooculogram (EOG) signal, but its accuracy is not very high. In the present study, we conducted experiments to investigate the EOG component strongly correlated with the change of eye movements. The experiments in this study are of two types: experiments to see objects only by eye movements and experiments to see objects by face and eye movements. The experimental results show the possibility of an eye tracking method using EOG signals and a Kinect sensor. Keiko Sakurai, Mingmin Yan, Koichi Tanno, and Hiroki Tamura Copyright © 2017 Keiko Sakurai et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Strategy for Minimum Attribute Reduction Based on Rough Set Theory and Fish Swarm Algorithm Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/6573623/ For data mining, reducing the unnecessary redundant attributes which was known as attribute reduction (AR), in particular, reducts with minimal cardinality, is an important preprocessing step. In the paper, by a coding method of combination subset of attributes set, a novel search strategy for minimal attribute reduction based on rough set theory (RST) and fish swarm algorithm (FSA) is proposed. The method identifies the core attributes by discernibility matrix firstly and all the subsets of noncore attribute sets with the same cardinality were encoded into integers as the individuals of FSA. Then, the evolutionary direction of the individual is limited to a certain extent by the coding method. The fitness function of an individual is defined based on the attribute dependency of RST, and FSA was used to find the optimal set of reducts. In each loop, if the maximum attribute dependency and the attribute dependency of condition attribute set are equal, then the algorithm terminates, otherwise adding a single attribute to the next loop. Some well-known datasets from UCI were selected to verify this method. The experimental results show that the proposed method searches the minimal attribute reduction set effectively and it has the excellent global search ability. Yuebin Su and Jin Guo Copyright © 2017 Yuebin Su and Jin Guo. All rights reserved. Joint Extraction of Entities and Relations Using Reinforcement Learning and Deep Learning Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/7643065/ We use both reinforcement learning and deep learning to simultaneously extract entities and relations from unstructured texts. For reinforcement learning, we model the task as a two-step decision process. Deep learning is used to automatically capture the most important information from unstructured texts, which represent the state in the decision process. By designing the reward function per step, our proposed method can pass the information of entity extraction to relation extraction and obtain feedback in order to extract entities and relations simultaneously. Firstly, we use bidirectional LSTM to model the context information, which realizes preliminary entity extraction. On the basis of the extraction results, attention based method can represent the sentences that include target entity pair to generate the initial state in the decision process. Then we use Tree-LSTM to represent relation mentions to generate the transition state in the decision process. Finally, we employ -Learning algorithm to get control policy in the two-step decision process. Experiments on ACE2005 demonstrate that our method attains better performance than the state-of-the-art method and gets a 2.4% increase in recall-score. Yuntian Feng, Hongjun Zhang, Wenning Hao, and Gang Chen Copyright © 2017 Yuntian Feng et al. All rights reserved. A Grey Wolf Optimizer for Modular Granular Neural Networks for Human Recognition Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/4180510/ A grey wolf optimizer for modular neural network (MNN) with a granular approach is proposed. The proposed method performs optimal granulation of data and design of modular neural networks architectures to perform human recognition, and to prove its effectiveness benchmark databases of ear, iris, and face biometric measures are used to perform tests and comparisons against other works. The design of a modular granular neural network (MGNN) consists in finding optimal parameters of its architecture; these parameters are the number of subgranules, percentage of data for the training phase, learning algorithm, goal error, number of hidden layers, and their number of neurons. Nowadays, there is a great variety of approaches and new techniques within the evolutionary computing area, and these approaches and techniques have emerged to help find optimal solutions to problems or models and bioinspired algorithms are part of this area. In this work a grey wolf optimizer is proposed for the design of modular granular neural networks, and the results are compared against a genetic algorithm and a firefly algorithm in order to know which of these techniques provides better results when applied to human recognition. Daniela Sánchez, Patricia Melin, and Oscar Castillo Copyright © 2017 Daniela Sánchez et al. All rights reserved. Application of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy InterCriteria Analysis Method with Triples to a Neural Network Preprocessing Procedure Thu, 10 Aug 2017 09:21:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/2157852/ The approach of InterCriteria Analysis (ICA) was applied for the aim of reducing the set of variables on the input of a neural network, taking into account the fact that their large number increases the number of neurons in the network, thus making them unusable for hardware implementation. Here, for the first time, with the help of the ICA method, correlations between triples of the input parameters for training of the neural networks were obtained. In this case, we use the approach of ICA for data preprocessing, which may yield reduction of the total time for training the neural networks, hence, the time for the network’s processing of data and images. Sotir Sotirov, Vassia Atanassova, Evdokia Sotirova, Lyubka Doukovska, Veselina Bureva, Deyan Mavrov, and Jivko Tomov Copyright © 2017 Sotir Sotirov et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Anisomerous Motor Imagery EEG Signals Based on Complex Algorithms Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/2727856/ Motor imagery (MI) electroencephalograph (EEG) signals are widely applied in brain-computer interface (BCI). However, classified MI states are limited, and their classification accuracy rates are low because of the characteristics of nonlinearity and nonstationarity. This study proposes a novel MI pattern recognition system that is based on complex algorithms for classifying MI EEG signals. In electrooculogram (EOG) artifact preprocessing, band-pass filtering is performed to obtain the frequency band of MI-related signals, and then, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) combined with wavelet threshold denoising (WTD) is used for EOG artifact preprocessing. We propose a regularized common spatial pattern (R-CSP) algorithm for EEG feature extraction by incorporating the principle of generic learning. A new classifier combining the -nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) approaches is used to classify four anisomerous states, namely, imaginary movements with the left hand, right foot, and right shoulder and the resting state. The highest classification accuracy rate is 92.5%, and the average classification accuracy rate is 87%. The proposed complex algorithm identification method can significantly improve the identification rate of the minority samples and the overall classification performance. Rensong Liu, Zhiwen Zhang, Feng Duan, Xin Zhou, and Zixuan Meng Copyright © 2017 Rensong Liu et al. All rights reserved. Box Office Forecasting considering Competitive Environment and Word-of-Mouth in Social Networks: A Case Study of Korean Film Market Thu, 27 Jul 2017 08:51:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/4315419/ Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM) effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS) are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA), based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models. The forecasts are combined to improve forecasting performance. Experimental results on the Korean film market show that the forecasting accuracy in early screening periods can be significantly improved by considering competition. In addition, WOM has a stronger influence on total box office forecasting. Considering both competition and WOM improves forecasting performance to a larger extent than when only one of them is considered. Taegu Kim, Jungsik Hong, and Pilsung Kang Copyright © 2017 Taegu Kim et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Resource Utilization Prediction System for Infrastructure as a Service Cloud Tue, 25 Jul 2017 08:28:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/4873459/ Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud provides resources as a service from a pool of compute, network, and storage resources. Cloud providers can manage their resource usage by knowing future usage demand from the current and past usage patterns of resources. Resource usage prediction is of great importance for dynamic scaling of cloud resources to achieve efficiency in terms of cost and energy consumption while keeping quality of service. The purpose of this paper is to present a real-time resource usage prediction system. The system takes real-time utilization of resources and feeds utilization values into several buffers based on the type of resources and time span size. Buffers are read by R language based statistical system. These buffers’ data are checked to determine whether their data follows Gaussian distribution or not. In case of following Gaussian distribution, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) is applied; otherwise Autoregressive Neural Network (AR-NN) is applied. In ARIMA process, a model is selected based on minimum Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values. Similarly, in AR-NN process, a network with the lowest Network Information Criterion (NIC) value is selected. We have evaluated our system with real traces of CPU utilization of an IaaS cloud of one hundred and twenty servers. Qazi Zia Ullah, Shahzad Hassan, and Gul Muhammad Khan Copyright © 2017 Qazi Zia Ullah et al. All rights reserved. Prototype Generation Using Self-Organizing Maps for Informativeness-Based Classifier Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/4263064/ The nearest neighbor is one of the most important and simple procedures for data classification task. The , as it is called, requires only two parameters: the number of and a similarity measure. However, the algorithm has some weaknesses that make it impossible to be used in real problems. Since the algorithm has no model, an exhaustive comparison of the object in classification analysis and all training dataset is necessary. Another weakness is the optimal choice of parameter when the object analyzed is in an overlap region. To mitigate theses negative aspects, in this work, a hybrid algorithm is proposed which uses the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) artificial neural network and a classifier that uses similarity measure based on information. Since SOM has the properties of vector quantization, it is used as a Prototype Generation approach to select a reduced training dataset for the classification approach based on the nearest neighbor rule with informativeness measure, named NN. The SOMNN combination was exhaustively experimented and the results show that the proposed approach presents important accuracy in databases where the border region does not have the object classes well defined. Leandro Juvêncio Moreira and Leandro A. Silva Copyright © 2017 Leandro Juvêncio Moreira and Leandro A. Silva. All rights reserved. Modified Mahalanobis Taguchi System for Imbalance Data Classification Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/5874896/ The Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) is considered one of the most promising binary classification algorithms to handle imbalance data. Unfortunately, MTS lacks a method for determining an efficient threshold for the binary classification. In this paper, a nonlinear optimization model is formulated based on minimizing the distance between MTS Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve and the theoretical optimal point named Modified Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MMTS). To validate the MMTS classification efficacy, it has been benchmarked with Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Naive Bayes (NB), Probabilistic Mahalanobis Taguchi Systems (PTM), Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE), Adaptive Conformal Transformation (ACT), Kernel Boundary Alignment (KBA), Hidden Naive Bayes (HNB), and other improved Naive Bayes algorithms. MMTS outperforms the benchmarked algorithms especially when the imbalance ratio is greater than 400. A real life case study on manufacturing sector is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and to compare its performance with Mahalanobis Genetic Algorithm (MGA). Mahmoud El-Banna Copyright © 2017 Mahmoud El-Banna. All rights reserved. Firefly Mating Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems Thu, 20 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/8034573/ This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, called firefly mating algorithm (FMA), for solving continuous optimization problems. FMA uses genetic algorithm as the core of the algorithm. The main feature of the algorithm is a novel mating pair selection method which is inspired by the following 2 mating behaviors of fireflies in nature: (i) the mutual attraction between males and females causes them to mate and (ii) fireflies of both sexes are of the multiple-mating type, mating with multiple opposite sex partners. A female continues mating until her spermatheca becomes full, and, in the same vein, a male can provide sperms for several females until his sperm reservoir is depleted. This new feature enhances the global convergence capability of the algorithm. The performance of FMA was tested with 20 benchmark functions (sixteen 30-dimensional functions and four 2-dimensional ones) against FA, ALC-PSO, COA, MCPSO, LWGSODE, MPSODDS, DFOA, SHPSOS, LSA, MPDPGA, DE, and GABC algorithms. The experimental results showed that the success rates of our proposed algorithm with these functions were higher than those of other algorithms and the proposed algorithm also required fewer numbers of iterations to reach the global optima. Amarita Ritthipakdee, Arit Thammano, Nol Premasathian, and Duangjai Jitkongchuen Copyright © 2017 Amarita Ritthipakdee et al. All rights reserved. Shape Completion Using Deep Boltzmann Machine Wed, 19 Jul 2017 06:47:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/5705693/ Shape completion is an important task in the field of image processing. An alternative method is to capture the shape information and finish the completion by a generative model, such as Deep Boltzmann Machine. With its powerful ability to deal with the distribution of the shapes, it is quite easy to acquire the result by sampling from the model. In this paper, we make use of the hidden activation of the DBM and incorporate it with the convolutional shape features to fit a regression model. We compare the output of the regression model with the incomplete shape feature in order to set a proper and compact mask for sampling from the DBM. The experiment shows that our method can obtain realistic results without any prior information about the incomplete object shape. Zheng Wang and Qingbiao Wu Copyright © 2017 Zheng Wang and Qingbiao Wu. All rights reserved. Patch-Based Principal Component Analysis for Face Recognition Tue, 11 Jul 2017 09:10:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/5317850/ We have proposed a patch-based principal component analysis (PCA) method to deal with face recognition. Many PCA-based methods for face recognition utilize the correlation between pixels, columns, or rows. But the local spatial information is not utilized or not fully utilized in these methods. We believe that patches are more meaningful basic units for face recognition than pixels, columns, or rows, since faces are discerned by patches containing eyes and noses. To calculate the correlation between patches, face images are divided into patches and then these patches are converted to column vectors which would be combined into a new “image matrix.” By replacing the images with the new “image matrix” in the two-dimensional PCA framework, we directly calculate the correlation of the divided patches by computing the total scatter. By optimizing the total scatter of the projected samples, we obtain the projection matrix for feature extraction. Finally, we use the nearest neighbor classifier. Extensive experiments on the ORL and FERET face database are reported to illustrate the performance of the patch-based PCA. Our method promotes the accuracy compared to one-dimensional PCA, two-dimensional PCA, and two-directional two-dimensional PCA. Tai-Xiang Jiang, Ting-Zhu Huang, Xi-Le Zhao, and Tian-Hui Ma Copyright © 2017 Tai-Xiang Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Feature Selection and Parameters Optimization of SVM Using Particle Swarm Optimization for Fault Classification in Power Distribution Systems Tue, 11 Jul 2017 06:53:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/4135465/ Fast and accurate fault classification is essential to power system operations. In this paper, in order to classify electrical faults in radial distribution systems, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based support vector machine (SVM) classifier has been proposed. The proposed PSO based SVM classifier is able to select appropriate input features and optimize SVM parameters to increase classification accuracy. Further, a time-domain reflectometry (TDR) method with a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) stimulus has been used to generate a dataset for purposes of classification. The proposed technique has been tested on a typical radial distribution network to identify ten different types of faults considering 12 given input features generated by using Simulink software and MATLAB Toolbox. The success rate of the SVM classifier is over 97%, which demonstrates the effectiveness and high efficiency of the developed method. Ming-Yuan Cho and Thi Thom Hoang Copyright © 2017 Ming-Yuan Cho and Thi Thom Hoang. All rights reserved. Differential Cloud Particles Evolution Algorithm Based on Data-Driven Mechanism for Applications of ANN Thu, 06 Jul 2017 09:50:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/8469103/ Computational scientists have designed many useful algorithms by exploring a biological process or imitating natural evolution. These algorithms can be used to solve engineering optimization problems. Inspired by the change of matter state, we proposed a novel optimization algorithm called differential cloud particles evolution algorithm based on data-driven mechanism (CPDD). In the proposed algorithm, the optimization process is divided into two stages, namely, fluid stage and solid stage. The algorithm carries out the strategy of integrating global exploration with local exploitation in fluid stage. Furthermore, local exploitation is carried out mainly in solid stage. The quality of the solution and the efficiency of the search are influenced greatly by the control parameters. Therefore, the data-driven mechanism is designed for obtaining better control parameters to ensure good performance on numerical benchmark problems. In order to verify the effectiveness of CPDD, numerical experiments are carried out on all the CEC2014 contest benchmark functions. Finally, two application problems of artificial neural network are examined. The experimental results show that CPDD is competitive with respect to other eight state-of-the-art intelligent optimization algorithms. Wei Li Copyright © 2017 Wei Li. All rights reserved. Characterization of 2-Path Product Signed Graphs with Its Properties Thu, 06 Jul 2017 08:41:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/1235715/ A signed graph is a simple graph where each edge receives a sign positive or negative. Such graphs are mainly used in social sciences where individuals represent vertices friendly relation between them as a positive edge and enmity as a negative edge. In signed graphs, we define these relationships (edges) as of friendship (“” edge) or hostility (“” edge). A 2-path product signed graph of a signed graph is defined as follows: the vertex set is the same as and two vertices are adjacent if and only if there exists a path of length two between them in . The sign of an edge is the product of marks of vertices in where the mark of vertex in is the product of signs of all edges incident to the vertex. In this paper, we give a characterization of 2-path product signed graphs. Also, some other properties such as sign-compatibility and canonically-sign-compatibility of 2-path product signed graphs are discussed along with isomorphism and switching equivalence of this signed graph with 2-path signed graph. Deepa Sinha and Deepakshi Sharma Copyright © 2017 Deepa Sinha and Deepakshi Sharma. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Classification of High Resolution Remote Sensing Scenes Using Visual Attention Features Thu, 06 Jul 2017 08:16:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/9858531/ In recent years the spatial resolutions of remote sensing images have been improved greatly. However, a higher spatial resolution image does not always lead to a better result of automatic scene classification. Visual attention is an important characteristic of the human visual system, which can effectively help to classify remote sensing scenes. In this study, a novel visual attention feature extraction algorithm was proposed, which extracted visual attention features through a multiscale process. And a fuzzy classification method using visual attention features (FC-VAF) was developed to perform high resolution remote sensing scene classification. FC-VAF was evaluated by using remote sensing scenes from widely used high resolution remote sensing images, including IKONOS, QuickBird, and ZY-3 images. FC-VAF achieved more accurate classification results than the others according to the quantitative accuracy evaluation indices. We also discussed the role and impacts of different decomposition levels and different wavelets on the classification accuracy. FC-VAF improves the accuracy of high resolution scene classification and therefore advances the research of digital image analysis and the applications of high resolution remote sensing images. Linyi Li, Tingbao Xu, and Yun Chen Copyright © 2017 Linyi Li et al. All rights reserved. Extracting T–S Fuzzy Models Using the Cuckoo Search Algorithm Thu, 06 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/8942394/ A new method called cuckoo search (CS) is used to extract and learn the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model. In the proposed method, the particle or cuckoo of CS is formed by the structure of rules in terms of number and selected rules, the antecedent, and consequent parameters of the T–S fuzzy model. These parameters are learned simultaneously. The optimized T–S fuzzy model is validated by using three examples: the first a nonlinear plant modelling problem, the second a Box–Jenkins nonlinear system identification problem, and the third identification of nonlinear system, comparing the obtained results with other existing results of other methods. The proposed CS method gives an optimal T–S fuzzy model with fewer numbers of rules. Mourad Turki and Anis Sakly Copyright © 2017 Mourad Turki and Anis Sakly. All rights reserved. Automatic Image-Based Plant Disease Severity Estimation Using Deep Learning Wed, 05 Jul 2017 06:46:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/2917536/ Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease. The performances of shallow networks trained from scratch and deep models fine-tuned by transfer learning are evaluated systemically in this paper. The best model is the deep VGG16 model trained with transfer learning, which yields an overall accuracy of 90.4% on the hold-out test set. The proposed deep learning model may have great potential in disease control for modern agriculture. Guan Wang, Yu Sun, and Jianxin Wang Copyright © 2017 Guan Wang et al. All rights reserved.