Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Smart Data: Where the Big Data Meets the Semantics Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:53:02 +0000 Trong H. Duong, Hong Q. Nguyen, and Geun S. Jo Copyright © 2017 Trong H. Duong et al. All rights reserved. Ranking of Sites for Installation of Hydropower Plant Using MLP Neural Network Trained with GA: A MADM Approach Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:38:45 +0000 Every energy system which we consider is an entity by itself, defined by parameters which are interrelated according to some physical laws. In recent year tremendous importance is given in research on site selection in an imprecise environment. In this context, decision making for the suitable location of power plant installation site is an issue of relevance. Environmental impact assessment is often used as a legislative requirement in site selection for decades. The purpose of this current work is to develop a model for decision makers to rank or classify various power plant projects according to multiple criteria attributes such as air quality, water quality, cost of energy delivery, ecological impact, natural hazard, and project duration. The case study in the paper relates to the application of multilayer perceptron trained by genetic algorithm for ranking various power plant locations in India. Benjamin A. Shimray, Kh. Manglem Singh, Thongam Khelchandra, and R. K. Mehta Copyright © 2017 Benjamin A. Shimray et al. All rights reserved. Patch Based Multiple Instance Learning Algorithm for Object Tracking Wed, 22 Feb 2017 07:49:35 +0000 To deal with the problems of illumination changes or pose variations and serious partial occlusion, patch based multiple instance learning (P-MIL) algorithm is proposed. The algorithm divides an object into many blocks. Then, the online MIL algorithm is applied on each block for obtaining strong classifier. The algorithm takes account of both the average classification score and classification scores of all the blocks for detecting the object. In particular, compared with the whole object based MIL algorithm, the P-MIL algorithm detects the object according to the unoccluded patches when partial occlusion occurs. After detecting the object, the learning rates for updating weak classifiers’ parameters are adaptively tuned. The classifier updating strategy avoids overupdating and underupdating the parameters. Finally, the proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms on several classical videos. The experiment results illustrate that the proposed method performs well especially in case of illumination changes or pose variations and partial occlusion. Moreover, the algorithm realizes real-time object tracking. Zhenjie Wang, Lijia Wang, and Hua Zhang Copyright © 2017 Zhenjie Wang et al. All rights reserved. Mexican Hat Wavelet Kernel ELM for Multiclass Classification Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) is a novel feedforward neural network, which is widely used in classification problems. To some extent, it solves the existing problems of the invalid nodes and the large computational complexity in ELM. However, the traditional KELM classifier usually has a low test accuracy when it faces multiclass classification problems. In order to solve the above problem, a new classifier, Mexican Hat wavelet KELM classifier, is proposed in this paper. The proposed classifier successfully improves the training accuracy and reduces the training time in the multiclass classification problems. Moreover, the validity of the Mexican Hat wavelet as a kernel function of ELM is rigorously proved. Experimental results on different data sets show that the performance of the proposed classifier is significantly superior to the compared classifiers. Jie Wang, Yi-Fan Song, and Tian-Lei Ma Copyright © 2017 Jie Wang et al. All rights reserved. An Evolutionary Method for Financial Forecasting in Microscopic High-Speed Trading Environment Mon, 20 Feb 2017 13:54:28 +0000 The advancement of information technology in financial applications nowadays have led to fast market-driven events that prompt flash decision-making and actions issued by computer algorithms. As a result, today’s markets experience intense activity in the highly dynamic environment where trading systems respond to others at a much faster pace than before. This new breed of technology involves the implementation of high-speed trading strategies which generate significant portion of activity in the financial markets and present researchers with a wealth of information not available in traditional low-speed trading environments. In this study, we aim at developing feasible computational intelligence methodologies, particularly genetic algorithms (GA), to shed light on high-speed trading research using price data of stocks on the microscopic level. Our empirical results show that the proposed GA-based system is able to improve the accuracy of the prediction significantly for price movement, and we expect this GA-based methodology to advance the current state of research for high-speed trading and other relevant financial applications. Chien-Feng Huang and Hsu-Chih Li Copyright © 2017 Chien-Feng Huang and Hsu-Chih Li. All rights reserved. A Novel Graph Constructor for Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis: Combined Low-Rank and -Nearest Neighbor Graph Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis (SDA) is a semisupervised dimensionality reduction algorithm, which can easily resolve the out-of-sample problem. Relative works usually focus on the geometric relationships of data points, which are not obvious, to enhance the performance of SDA. Different from these relative works, the regularized graph construction is researched here, which is important in the graph-based semisupervised learning methods. In this paper, we propose a novel graph for Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis, which is called combined low-rank and -nearest neighbor (LRKNN) graph. In our LRKNN graph, we map the data to the LR feature space and then the is adopted to satisfy the algorithmic requirements of SDA. Since the low-rank representation can capture the global structure and the -nearest neighbor algorithm can maximally preserve the local geometrical structure of the data, the LRKNN graph can significantly improve the performance of SDA. Extensive experiments on several real-world databases show that the proposed LRKNN graph is an efficient graph constructor, which can largely outperform other commonly used baselines. Baokai Zu, Kewen Xia, Yongke Pan, and Wenjia Niu Copyright © 2017 Baokai Zu et al. All rights reserved. A Robust Shape Reconstruction Method for Facial Feature Point Detection Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Facial feature point detection has been receiving great research advances in recent years. Numerous methods have been developed and applied in practical face analysis systems. However, it is still a quite challenging task because of the large variability in expression and gestures and the existence of occlusions in real-world photo shoot. In this paper, we present a robust sparse reconstruction method for the face alignment problems. Instead of a direct regression between the feature space and the shape space, the concept of shape increment reconstruction is introduced. Moreover, a set of coupled overcomplete dictionaries termed the shape increment dictionary and the local appearance dictionary are learned in a regressive manner to select robust features and fit shape increments. Additionally, to make the learned model more generalized, we select the best matched parameter set through extensive validation tests. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a better robustness over the state-of-the-art methods. Shuqiu Tan, Dongyi Chen, Chenggang Guo, and Zhiqi Huang Copyright © 2017 Shuqiu Tan et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Framework for EEG Analysis with Application to Hybrid Brain Computer Interfaces Based on Motor Imagery and P300 Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The hybrid brain computer interface (BCI) based on motor imagery (MI) and P300 has been a preferred strategy aiming to improve the detection performance through combining the features of each. However, current methods used for combining these two modalities optimize them separately, which does not result in optimal performance. Here, we present an efficient framework to optimize them together by concatenating the features of MI and P300 in a block diagonal form. Then a linear classifier under a dual spectral norm regularizer is applied to the combined features. Under this framework, the hybrid features of MI and P300 can be learned, selected, and combined together directly. Experimental results on the data set of hybrid BCI based on MI and P300 are provided to illustrate competitive performance of the proposed method against other conventional methods. This provides an evidence that the method used here contributes to the discrimination performance of the brain state in hybrid BCI. Jinyi Long, Jue Wang, and Tianyou Yu Copyright © 2017 Jinyi Long et al. All rights reserved. Image Classification Using Biomimetic Pattern Recognition with Convolutional Neural Networks Features Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 As a typical deep-learning model, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can be exploited to automatically extract features from images using the hierarchical structure inspired by mammalian visual system. For image classification tasks, traditional CNN models employ the softmax function for classification. However, owing to the limited capacity of the softmax function, there are some shortcomings of traditional CNN models in image classification. To deal with this problem, a new method combining Biomimetic Pattern Recognition (BPR) with CNNs is proposed for image classification. BPR performs class recognition by a union of geometrical cover sets in a high-dimensional feature space and therefore can overcome some disadvantages of traditional pattern recognition. The proposed method is evaluated on three famous image classification benchmarks, that is, MNIST, AR, and CIFAR-10. The classification accuracies of the proposed method for the three datasets are 99.01%, 98.40%, and 87.11%, respectively, which are much higher in comparison with the other four methods in most cases. Liangji Zhou, Qingwu Li, Guanying Huo, and Yan Zhou Copyright © 2017 Liangji Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms. Kai Chen, Rongchun Li, Yong Dou, Zhengfa Liang, and Qi Lv Copyright © 2017 Kai Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Method for Consensus Reaching in Product Kansei Evaluation Using Advanced Particle Swarm Optimization Sun, 12 Feb 2017 08:03:35 +0000 Consumers’ opinions toward product design alternatives are often subjective and perceptual, which reflect their perception about a product and can be described using Kansei adjectives. Therefore, Kansei evaluation is often employed to determine consumers’ preference. However, how to identify and improve the reliability of consumers’ Kansei evaluation opinions toward design alternatives has an important role in adding additional insurance and reducing uncertainty to successful product design. To solve this problem, this study employs a consensus model to measure consistence among consumers’ opinions, and an advanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm combined with Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight (LDW) method is proposed for consensus reaching by minimizing adjustment of consumers’ opinions. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented and the details are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter design evaluation. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for reaching a consensus through searching optimal solutions by PSO and improving the reliability of consumers’ evaluation opinions toward design alternatives according to Kansei indexes. Yan-pu Yang Copyright © 2017 Yan-pu Yang. All rights reserved. Reversible Data Hiding Based on DNA Computing Wed, 08 Feb 2017 06:39:43 +0000 Biocomputing, especially DNA, computing has got great development. It is widely used in information security. In this paper, a novel algorithm of reversible data hiding based on DNA computing is proposed. Inspired by the algorithm of histogram modification, which is a classical algorithm for reversible data hiding, we combine it with DNA computing to realize this algorithm based on biological technology. Compared with previous results, our experimental results have significantly improved the ER (Embedding Rate). Furthermore, some PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratios) of test images are also improved. Experimental results show that it is suitable for protecting the copyright of cover image in DNA-based information security. Bin Wang, Yingjie Xie, Shihua Zhou, Changjun Zhou, and Xuedong Zheng Copyright © 2017 Bin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Robot Manipulator Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In this paper, advanced interval type-2 fuzzy sliding mode control (AIT2FSMC) for robot manipulator is proposed. The proposed AIT2FSMC is a combination of interval type-2 fuzzy system and sliding mode control. For resembling a feedback linearization (FL) control law, interval type-2 fuzzy system is designed. For compensating the approximation error between the FL control law and interval type-2 fuzzy system, sliding mode controller is designed, respectively. The tuning algorithms are derived in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem. Two-link rigid robot manipulator with nonlinearity is used to test and the simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method that can control unknown system well. Ji-Hwan Hwang, Young-Chang Kang, Jong-Wook Park, and Dong W. Kim Copyright © 2017 Ji-Hwan Hwang et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Multilevel-SVD Method to Improve Multistep Ahead Forecasting in Traffic Accidents Domain Sun, 05 Feb 2017 10:04:53 +0000 Here is proposed a novel method for decomposing a nonstationary time series in components of low and high frequency. The method is based on Multilevel Singular Value Decomposition (MSVD) of a Hankel matrix. The decomposition is used to improve the forecasting accuracy of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) linear and nonlinear models. Three time series coming from traffic accidents domain are used. They represent the number of persons with injuries in traffic accidents of Santiago, Chile. The data were continuously collected by the Chilean Police and were weekly sampled from 2000:1 to 2014:12. The performance of MSVD is compared with the decomposition in components of low and high frequency of a commonly accepted method based on Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT). SWT in conjunction with the Autoregressive model (SWT + MIMO-AR) and SWT in conjunction with an Autoregressive Neural Network (SWT + MIMO-ANN) were evaluated. The empirical results have shown that the best accuracy was achieved by the forecasting model based on the proposed decomposition method MSVD, in comparison with the forecasting models based on SWT. Lida Barba and Nibaldo Rodríguez Copyright © 2017 Lida Barba and Nibaldo Rodríguez. All rights reserved. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Wed, 01 Feb 2017 12:36:36 +0000 Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN) has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D) unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently. Jianjun Ni, Liuying Wu, Pengfei Shi, and Simon X. Yang Copyright © 2017 Jianjun Ni et al. All rights reserved. A Theoretical Analysis of Why Hybrid Ensembles Work Tue, 31 Jan 2017 07:18:59 +0000 Inspired by the group decision making process, ensembles or combinations of classifiers have been found favorable in a wide variety of application domains. Some researchers propose to use the mixture of two different types of classification algorithms to create a hybrid ensemble. Why does such an ensemble work? The question remains. Following the concept of diversity, which is one of the fundamental elements of the success of ensembles, we conduct a theoretical analysis of why hybrid ensembles work, connecting using different algorithms to accuracy gain. We also conduct experiments on classification performance of hybrid ensembles of classifiers created by decision tree and naïve Bayes classification algorithms, each of which is a top data mining algorithm and often used to create non-hybrid ensembles. Therefore, through this paper, we provide a complement to the theoretical foundation of creating and using hybrid ensembles. Kuo-Wei Hsu Copyright © 2017 Kuo-Wei Hsu. All rights reserved. A Novel Ensemble Method for Imbalanced Data Learning: Bagging of Extrapolation-SMOTE SVM Mon, 30 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Class imbalance ubiquitously exists in real life, which has attracted much interest from various domains. Direct learning from imbalanced dataset may pose unsatisfying results overfocusing on the accuracy of identification and deriving a suboptimal model. Various methodologies have been developed in tackling this problem including sampling, cost-sensitive, and other hybrid ones. However, the samples near the decision boundary which contain more discriminative information should be valued and the skew of the boundary would be corrected by constructing synthetic samples. Inspired by the truth and sense of geometry, we designed a new synthetic minority oversampling technique to incorporate the borderline information. What is more, ensemble model always tends to capture more complicated and robust decision boundary in practice. Taking these factors into considerations, a novel ensemble method, called Bagging of Extrapolation Borderline-SMOTE SVM (BEBS), has been proposed in dealing with imbalanced data learning (IDL) problems. Experiments on open access datasets showed significant superior performance using our model and a persuasive and intuitive explanation behind the method was illustrated. As far as we know, this is the first model combining ensemble of SVMs with borderline information for solving such condition. Qi Wang, ZhiHao Luo, JinCai Huang, YangHe Feng, and Zhong Liu Copyright © 2017 Qi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Statistical Modeling and Prediction for Tourism Economy Using Dendritic Neural Network Thu, 26 Jan 2017 07:46:51 +0000 With the impact of global internationalization, tourism economy has also been a rapid development. The increasing interest aroused by more advanced forecasting methods leads us to innovate forecasting methods. In this paper, the seasonal trend autoregressive integrated moving averages with dendritic neural network model (SA-D model) is proposed to perform the tourism demand forecasting. First, we use the seasonal trend autoregressive integrated moving averages model (SARIMA model) to exclude the long-term linear trend and then train the residual data by the dendritic neural network model and make a short-term prediction. As the result showed in this paper, the SA-D model can achieve considerably better predictive performances. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SA-D model, we also use the data that other authors used in the other models and compare the results. It also proved that the SA-D model achieved good predictive performances in terms of the normalized mean square error, absolute percentage of error, and correlation coefficient. Ying Yu, Yirui Wang, Shangce Gao, and Zheng Tang Copyright © 2017 Ying Yu et al. All rights reserved. Deep Recurrent Neural Network-Based Autoencoders for Acoustic Novelty Detection Sun, 15 Jan 2017 12:33:17 +0000 In the emerging field of acoustic novelty detection, most research efforts are devoted to probabilistic approaches such as mixture models or state-space models. Only recent studies introduced (pseudo-)generative models for acoustic novelty detection with recurrent neural networks in the form of an autoencoder. In these approaches, auditory spectral features of the next short term frame are predicted from the previous frames by means of Long-Short Term Memory recurrent denoising autoencoders. The reconstruction error between the input and the output of the autoencoder is used as activation signal to detect novel events. There is no evidence of studies focused on comparing previous efforts to automatically recognize novel events from audio signals and giving a broad and in depth evaluation of recurrent neural network-based autoencoders. The present contribution aims to consistently evaluate our recent novel approaches to fill this white spot in the literature and provide insight by extensive evaluations carried out on three databases: A3Novelty, PASCAL CHiME, and PROMETHEUS. Besides providing an extensive analysis of novel and state-of-the-art methods, the article shows how RNN-based autoencoders outperform statistical approaches up to an absolute improvement of 16.4% average -measure over the three databases. Erik Marchi, Fabio Vesperini, Stefano Squartini, and Björn Schuller Copyright © 2017 Erik Marchi et al. All rights reserved. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding Tue, 03 Jan 2017 11:15:42 +0000 The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO), which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur’s entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO) and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO), the differential evolution (DE), the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC), and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability. Linguo Li, Lijuan Sun, Jian Guo, Jin Qi, Bin Xu, and Shujing Li Copyright © 2017 Linguo Li et al. All rights reserved. Training Feedforward Neural Networks Using Symbiotic Organisms Search Algorithm Sun, 25 Dec 2016 11:18:32 +0000 Symbiotic organisms search (SOS) is a new robust and powerful metaheuristic algorithm, which stimulates the symbiotic interaction strategies adopted by organisms to survive and propagate in the ecosystem. In the supervised learning area, it is a challenging task to present a satisfactory and efficient training algorithm for feedforward neural networks (FNNs). In this paper, SOS is employed as a new method for training FNNs. To investigate the performance of the aforementioned method, eight different datasets selected from the UCI machine learning repository are employed for experiment and the results are compared among seven metaheuristic algorithms. The results show that SOS performs better than other algorithms for training FNNs in terms of converging speed. It is also proven that an FNN trained by the method of SOS has better accuracy than most algorithms compared. Haizhou Wu, Yongquan Zhou, Qifang Luo, and Mohamed Abdel Basset Copyright © 2016 Haizhou Wu et al. All rights reserved. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG Wed, 21 Dec 2016 06:59:59 +0000 The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP. Wenchang Zhang, Fuchun Sun, Chuanqi Tan, and Shaobo Liu Copyright © 2016 Wenchang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Main Trend Extraction Based on Irregular Sampling Estimation and Its Application in Storage Volume of Internet Data Center Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:58:16 +0000 The storage volume of internet data center is one of the classical time series. It is very valuable to predict the storage volume of a data center for the business value. However, the storage volume series from a data center is always “dirty,” which contains the noise, missing data, and outliers, so it is necessary to extract the main trend of storage volume series for the future prediction processing. In this paper, we propose an irregular sampling estimation method to extract the main trend of the time series, in which the Kalman filter is used to remove the “dirty” data; then the cubic spline interpolation and average method are used to reconstruct the main trend. The developed method is applied in the storage volume series of internet data center. The experiment results show that the developed method can estimate the main trend of storage volume series accurately and make great contribution to predict the future volume value. 
 Beibei Miao, Chao Dou, and Xuebo Jin Copyright © 2016 Beibei Miao et al. All rights reserved. Herbal Extracts That Reduce Ocular Oxidative Stress May Enhance Attentive Performance in Humans Tue, 20 Dec 2016 12:08:00 +0000 We used herbal extracts in this study to investigate the effects of blue-light-induced oxidative stress on subjects’ attentive performance, which is also associated with work performance. We employed an attention network test (ANT) to measure the subjects’ work performance indirectly and used herbal extracts to reduce ocular oxidative stress. Thirty-two subjects participated in either an experimental group (wearing glasses containing herbal extracts) or a control group (wearing glasses without herbal extracts). During the ANT experiment, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) and electrooculography (EOG) data and measured button responses. In addition, electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected before and after the experiments. The EOG results showed that the experimental group exhibited a reduced number of eye blinks per second during the experiment and faster button responses with a smaller variation than did the control group; this group also showed relatively more sustained tension in their ECG results. In the EEG analysis, the experimental group had significantly greater cognitive processing, with larger P300 and parietal 2–6 Hz activity, an orienting effect with neural processing of frontal area, high beta activity in the occipital area, and an alpha and beta recovery process after the button response. We concluded that reducing blue-light-induced oxidative stress with herbal extracts may be associated with reducing the number of eye blinks and enhancing attentive performance. Hohyun Cho, Moonyoung Kwon, Hyojung Jang, Jee-Bum Lee, Kyung Chul Yoon, and Sung Chan Jun Copyright © 2016 Hohyun Cho et al. All rights reserved. A “Tuned” Mask Learnt Approach Based on Gravitational Search Algorithm Mon, 19 Dec 2016 11:59:26 +0000 Texture image classification is an important topic in many applications in machine vision and image analysis. Texture feature extracted from the original texture image by using “Tuned” mask is one of the simplest and most effective methods. However, hill climbing based training methods could not acquire the satisfying mask at a time; on the other hand, some commonly used evolutionary algorithms like genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) easily fall into the local optimum. A novel approach for texture image classification exemplified with recognition of residential area is detailed in the paper. In the proposed approach, “Tuned” mask is viewed as a constrained optimization problem and the optimal “Tuned” mask is acquired by maximizing the texture energy via a newly proposed gravitational search algorithm (GSA). The optimal “Tuned” mask is achieved through the convergence of GSA. The proposed approach has been, respectively, tested on some public texture and remote sensing images. The results are then compared with that of GA, PSO, honey-bee mating optimization (HBMO), and artificial immune algorithm (AIA). Moreover, feature extracted by Gabor wavelet is also utilized to make a further comparison. Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits better performance than other methods involved in the paper in terms of fitness value and classification accuracy. Youchuan Wan, Mingwei Wang, Zhiwei Ye, and Xudong Lai Copyright © 2016 Youchuan Wan et al. All rights reserved. Application of Machine Learning in Postural Control Kinematics for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Sun, 18 Dec 2016 07:30:10 +0000 The use of wearable devices to study gait and postural control is a growing field on neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this paper, we investigate if machine-learning classifiers offer the discriminative power for the diagnosis of AD based on postural control kinematics. We compared Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Multiple Layer Perceptrons (MLPs), Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBNs), and Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) on 72 participants (36 AD patients and 36 healthy subjects) exposed to seven increasingly difficult postural tasks. The decisional space was composed of 18 kinematic variables (adjusted for age, education, height, and weight), with or without neuropsychological evaluation (Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) score), top ranked in an error incremental analysis. Classification results were based on threefold cross validation of 50 independent and randomized runs sets: training (50%), test (40%), and validation (10%). Having a decisional space relying solely on postural kinematics, accuracy of AD diagnosis ranged from 71.7 to 86.1%. Adding the MoCA variable, the accuracy ranged between 91 and 96.6%. MLP classifier achieved top performance in both decisional spaces. Having comprehended the interdynamic interaction between postural stability and cognitive performance, our results endorse machine-learning models as a useful tool for computer-aided diagnosis of AD based on postural control kinematics. Luís Costa, Miguel F. Gago, Darya Yelshyna, Jaime Ferreira, Hélder David Silva, Luís Rocha, Nuno Sousa, and Estela Bicho Copyright © 2016 Luís Costa et al. All rights reserved. Equivalent Neural Network Optimal Coefficients Using Forgetting Factor with Sliding Modes Tue, 13 Dec 2016 13:16:39 +0000 The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) concept is familiar in methods whose task is, for example, the identification or approximation of the outputs of complex systems difficult to model. In general, the objective is to determine online the adequate parameters to reach a better point-to-point convergence rate, so that this paper presents the parameter estimation for an equivalent ANN (EANN), obtaining a recursive identification for a stochastic system, firstly, with constant parameters and, secondly, with nonstationary output system conditions. Therefore, in the last estimation, the parameters also have stochastic properties, making the traditional approximation methods not adequate due to their losing of convergence rate. In order to give a solution to this problematic, we propose a nonconstant exponential forgetting factor (NCEFF) with sliding modes, obtaining in almost all points an exponential convergence rate decreasing. Theoretical results of both identification stages are performed using MATLAB® and compared, observing improvement when the new proposal for nonstationary output conditions is applied. Karen Alicia Aguilar Cruz, José de Jesús Medel Juárez, and Romeo Urbieta Parrazales Copyright © 2016 Karen Alicia Aguilar Cruz et al. All rights reserved. Volitional and Real-Time Control Cursor Based on Eye Movement Decoding Using a Linear Decoding Model Tue, 13 Dec 2016 13:05:41 +0000 The aim of this study is to build a linear decoding model that reveals the relationship between the movement information and the EOG (electrooculogram) data to online control a cursor continuously with blinks and eye pursuit movements. First of all, a blink detection method is proposed to reject a voluntary single eye blink or double-blink information from EOG. Then, a linear decoding model of time series is developed to predict the position of gaze, and the model parameters are calibrated by the RLS (Recursive Least Square) algorithm; besides, the assessment of decoding accuracy is assessed through cross-validation procedure. Additionally, the subsection processing, increment control, and online calibration are presented to realize the online control. Finally, the technology is applied to the volitional and online control of a cursor to hit the multiple predefined targets. Experimental results show that the blink detection algorithm performs well with the voluntary blink detection rate over . Through combining the merits of blinks and smooth pursuit movements, the movement information of eyes can be decoded in good conformity with the average Pearson correlation coefficient which is up to , and all signal-to-noise ratios are greater than . The novel system allows people to successfully and economically control a cursor online with a hit rate of . Jinhua Zhang, Baozeng Wang, Cheng Zhang, and Jun Hong Copyright © 2016 Jinhua Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Intelligent Process Abnormal Patterns Recognition and Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Logic Mon, 12 Dec 2016 11:31:37 +0000 Locating the assignable causes by use of the abnormal patterns of control chart is a widely used technology for manufacturing quality control. If there are uncertainties about the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns, the diagnosis process is impossible to be carried out. Considering four common abnormal control chart patterns, this paper proposed a characteristic numbers based recognition method point by point to quantify the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns under uncertain conditions and a fuzzy inference system based on fuzzy logic to calculate the contribution degree of assignable causes with fuzzy abnormal patterns. Application case results show that the proposed approach can give a ranked causes list under fuzzy control chart abnormal patterns and support the abnormity eliminating. Shi-wang Hou, Shunxiao Feng, and Hui Wang Copyright © 2016 Shi-wang Hou et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Accuracy and Similarity Search Structure Based on Parallel Bloom Filters Wed, 07 Dec 2016 07:43:11 +0000 In high-dimensional spaces, accuracy and similarity search by low computing and storage costs are always difficult research topics, and there is a balance between efficiency and accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new structure Similar-PBF-PHT to represent items of a set with high dimensions and retrieve accurate and similar items. The Similar-PBF-PHT contains three parts: parallel bloom filters (PBFs), parallel hash tables (PHTs), and a bitmatrix. Experiments show that the Similar-PBF-PHT is effective in membership query and K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) search. With accurate querying, the Similar-PBF-PHT owns low hit false positive probability (FPP) and acceptable memory costs. With K-NN querying, the average overall ratio and rank-i ratio of the Hamming distance are accurate and ratios of the Euclidean distance are acceptable. It takes CPU time not I/O times to retrieve accurate and similar items and can deal with different data formats not only numerical values. Chunyan Shuai, Hengcheng Yang, Xin Ouyang, Siqi Li, and Zheng Chen Copyright © 2016 Chunyan Shuai et al. All rights reserved.