Table of Contents
Chinese Journal of Biology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 672980, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/672980
Research Article

Significant Differences in the Prevalence of Elevated HbA1c Levels for Type I and Type II Diabetics Attending the Parirenyatwa Diabetic Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box AV 178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe
2Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1078, Blinden, 0316 Oslo, Norway

Received 14 October 2013; Accepted 21 November 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editors: A. Castañeyra-Perdomo, W. Ding, and J. Xie

Copyright © 2014 Kurai Z. Chako et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. A. Buritis, E. R. Ashwood, D. E. Bruns et al., Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, Saunders Elsevier’s Publishers, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 6th edition, 2008.
  2. L. G. Whitby, I. W. Percy-Robb, and A. F. Smith, Lecture Notes on Clinical Chemistry, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, UK, 3rd edition, 1984.
  3. G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu et al., “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2·7 million participants,” The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9785, pp. 31–40, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. E. Shaw, R. A. Sicree, and P. Z. Zimmet, “Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 4–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. F. Amos, D. J. McCarty, and P. Zimmet, “The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 81–85, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Sobngwi, F. Mauvais-Jarvis, P. Vexiau, J. C. Mbanya, and J. F. Gautier, “Diabetes in Africans. Part 1: epidemiology and clinical specificities,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 628–634, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. H. Mosley, J. L. Bobadilla, and D. T. Jamison, “The health transition: implications for health policy in developing countries,” Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, vol. 23, pp. 673–699, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  8. E. Williams, “Clinical practice recommendations, standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, pp. 523–531, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  9. K. Sikaris, “The correlation of hemoglobin A1c to blood glucose,” Journal of diabetes science and technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 429–438, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. “Executive summary: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, pp. S6–s12, 2012. View at Scopus
  11. World Health Organisation, Use of Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus, World Health Organisation Publication, 2011.
  12. L. N. Pani, L. Korenda, J. B. Meigs et al., “Effect of aging on A1C levels in individuals without diabetes: evidence from the Framingham Offspring Study and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, pp. 1991–1996, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. M. L. Larsen, M. Horder, and E. F. Mogensen, “Effect of long-term monitoring of glycosylated hemoglobin levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 323, no. 15, pp. 1021–1025, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. American Diabetes Association, “Standards of medical care in diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 35, supplement 1, pp. S11–S63, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. M. Stollar, S. Dazhong, D. Conaway et al., “Importance of measuring glycosylated haemoglobin in ptients with myocardial infarction and known diabetes,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 105, pp. 222–229, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  16. State of Alaska Epidemiology, “Diabetes management: glycated hemoglobin testing (HbA1c),” State of Alaska Epidemiology Bulletin, no. 18, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Nicholas, J. Charlton, A. Dregan, and M. C. Gulliford, “Recent HbA1c values and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Population-Based Case-Control Study,” PLoS ONE, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. H. C. Gerstein, K. Swedberg, J. Carlsson et al., “The hemoglobin A1c level as a progressive risk factor for cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, or death in patients with chronic heart failure: an analysis of the candesartan in heart failure: Assessment of reduction in mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 168, no. 15, pp. 1699–1704, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. F. Lewis, A. Carpentier, K. Adeli, and A. Giacca, “Disordered fat storage and mobilization in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 201–229, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K.-T. Khaw, N. Wareham, S. Bingham, R. Luben, A. Welch, and N. Day, “Preliminary communication: glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and incident colorectal cancer in men and women: a prospective analysis from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 915–919, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Gakidou, L. Mallinger, J. Abbott-Klafter et al., “Management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk factors in seven countries: a comparison of data from national health examination surveys,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 172–183, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. L. Ong, B. M. Y. Cheung, L. Y. F. Wong, N. M. S. Wat, K. C. B. Tan, and K. S. L. Lam, “Prevalence, treatment, and control of diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 222–229, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. M. Stollar, S. Dazhong, D. Conaway et al., “Importance of measuring glycosylated haemoglobin in ptients with myocardial infarction and known diabetes,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 105, pp. 222–229, 2008. View at Google Scholar