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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume 4, Issue 9, Pages 572-575
Biliary Tract and Pancreas

Pancreatic Endosonography: Clinical TNM Staging Compared to Histology

TL Tio

Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Copyright © 1990 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Endosonography has been reported to be effective in the staging of gastrointestinal carcinoma. Pancreatic carcinoma is included in the new (1987) TNM classification. Resectability is abandoned in favour of depth of tumour invasion. In the author's preoperative study, endosonography was accurate for staging of tumour categories, and early stages of disease could be distinguished from advanced carcinomas. The presence or absence of regional lymph nodes can be detected. Tissue diagnosis by biopsy and endosonographyguidcd cytology is now possible. This imaging technique will become the standard procedure for the staging of pancreatic carcinoma.