Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 571-573
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1993/610272
Clinical Gastroenterology

Combination of Ciprofloxacin and Metronidazole in Severe Perianal Crohn’s Disease

MJ Solomon, RS McLeod, BI O’Connor, AH Steinhart, GR Greenberg, and Z Cohen

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unite and Department of Surgery and Medicine, University of Toronto and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Received 13 October 1992; Revised 25 March 1993

Copyright © 1993 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [108 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • H. Vogelsang, “Konservative Therapie chronisch entzündlicher Darmerkrankungen—postoperative Therapie und Nachsorge,” European Surgery, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 150–154, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Solomon, “Fistulae and abscesses in symptomatic perianal Crohn's disease,” International Journal of Colorectal Disease, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 222–226, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Hillary Steinhart, and Robin S. McLeod, “Medical and surgical management of perianal Crohn's disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 200–210, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Köhler, S. Athanasiadis, and E. Psarakis, “Die Analfistel,” Coloproctology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 186–203, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gunnar Järnerot, Hanna Sandberg-Gertzén, and Curt Tysk, “4 Medical therapy of active Crohn's disease,” Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 73–92, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • John J. Murray, “7 Controversies in Crohn's disease,” Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 133–155, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Hillary Steinhart, Gordon R. Greenberg, and Susan L. Greenbloom, “Combination ciprofloxacin and metronidazole for active Crohn's disease,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 53–56, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • D.H. Present, “Review article: the efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease - healing of fistulae,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. s4, pp. 23–28, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • D. Bouchard, and J. Denis, “Maladie de Crohn anopérinéale,” Acta Endoscopica, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 283–301, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel H. Present, Paul Rutgeerts, Stephan Targan, Stephen B. Hanauer, Lloyd Mayer, R.A. van Hogezand, Daniel K. Podolsky, Bruce E. Sands, Tanja Braakman, Kimberly L. DeWoody, Thomas F. Schaible, and Sander J.H. van Deventer, “Infliximab for the Treatment of Fistulas in Patients with Crohn's Disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 18, pp. 1398–1405, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gary R. Lichtenstein, “Treatment of fistulizing Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 1132–1147, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R. Mark Beattie, “Therapy of Crohn's disease in childhood,” Paediatric Drugs, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 193–203, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Robert B. Stein, and Gary R. Lichtenstein, “Medical Therapy for Crohn's Disease,” Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 71–101, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gisbert Javier P., Maté José, María Pajares José, and Gomollón Fernando, “Tratamiento farmacológico de las fístulas en la enfermedad de Crohn,” Medicina Clínica, vol. 116, no. 17, pp. 664–671, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paré, “Management of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease: Antibiotic to antibody,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 751–756, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • L. Biancone, I. Monteleone, G. Del Vecchio Blanco, P. Vavassori, and F. Pallone, “Resident bacterial flora and immune system,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 34, pp. S37–S43, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Subhas Banerjee, and Mark A Peppercorn, “Inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 185–202, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Klaus Fellermann, Jan Wehkamp, Klaus R Herrlinger, and Eduard F Stange, “Crohn's disease,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 627–634, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel H. Present, “Crohn’s fistula: current concepts in management1 1Abbreviations used in this paper: EUA, examination under anesthesia; EUS, endoscopic ultrasound; MP, mercaptopurine; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging.,” Gastroenterology, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 1629–1635, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Philippe Marteau, Philippe Seksik, and Fergus Shanahan, “Manipulation of the bacterial flora in inflammatory bowel disease,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 47–61, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • C. Dejaco, M. Harrer, T. Waldhoer, W. Miehsler, H. Vogelsang, and W. Reinisch, “Antibiotics and azathioprine for the treatment of perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 18, no. 11-12, pp. 1113–1120, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • U. Mahadevan, J. F. Marion, and D. H. Present, “Fistula response to methotrexate in Crohn's disease: a case series,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1003–1008, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • William J Sandborn, Victor W Fazio, Brian G Feagan, and Stephen B Hanauer, “AGA technical review on perianal Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 1508–1530, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cyrus P Tamboli, Christel Caucheteux, Antoine Cortot, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, and Pierre Desreumaux, “Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: a critical review,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 805–820, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Buhr, Kroesen, and Stange, “Surgery fistulas,” Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wolfgang Miehsler, and Christoph Gasche, “Standard therapy of Crohn's disease,” Digestive Diseases, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 146–156, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kim L Isaacs, and R.Balfour Sartor, “Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with antibiotics,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 335–345, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Thomas A Judge, and Gary R Lichtenstein, “Treatment of fistulizing Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 421–454, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R.Balfour Sartor, “Therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1620–1633, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sandro Ardizzone, Giovanni Maconi, Gabriele Bianchi Porro, Elisabetta Colombo, Guendalina Manzionna, and Simona Bollani, “Perianal fistulae following infliximab treatment: Clinical and endosonographic outcome,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R. L. West, C. J. Woude, B. E. Hansen, R. J. F. Felt-Bersma, A. J. P. Tilburg, J. A. G. Drapers, and E. J. Kuipers, “Clinical and endosonographic effect of ciprofloxacin on the treatment of perianal fistulae in Crohn's disease with infliximab: a double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. 11-12, pp. 1329–1336, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. Rutgeerts, “Treatment of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. s4, pp. 106–110, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Walter Reinisch, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Clemens Dejaco, Peter Ferenci, Béla Téleky, Wolfgang Miehsler, Ewald Schober, Harald Vogelsang, Gotfried Novacek, Friedrich Herbst, and Judith Karner, “Infliximab: Lack of efficacy on perforating complications in Crohn's disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 36–40, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Imran Rasul, Stephanie R. Wilson, Helen MacRae, Sue Irwin, and Gordon R. Greenberg, “Clinical and Radiological Responses after Infliximab Treatment for Perianal Fistulizing Crohn's Disease,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 82–88, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R. L. West, C. J. Van Der Woude, H. Ph. Endtz, B. E. Hansen, M. Ouwedijk, H. A. M. Boelens, J. G. Kusters, and E. J. Kuipers, “Perianal Fistulas in Crohn’s Disease Are Predominantly Colonized by Skin Flora: Implications for Antibiotic Treatment?,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1260–1263, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christian Felley, Christian Mottet, Pascal Juillerat, Florian Froehlich, Bernard Burnand, John-Paul Vader, Pierre Michetti, and Jean-Jacques Gonvers, “Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease,” Digestion, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 26–28, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • C. Talbot, P. M. Sagar, M. J. Johnston, P. J. Finan, and D. Burke, “Infliximab in the surgical management of complex fistulating anal Crohn's disease,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 164–168, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mario Guslandi, “Antibiotics for inflammatory bowel disease: do they work?,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 145–147, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hideaki Kimura, Katsuhiko Arai, Akira Sugita, Tsuneo Fukushima, and Kazutaka Koganei, “Efficacy and problems of fecal diversion for intractable anorectal complications of Crohn's disease,” Japanese Journal of Gastroenterological Surgery, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1543–1548, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cocco, Riis, Hamilton, Michetti, Gassull, O'Morain, Mouzas, Mitchell, Travis, Forbes, Lochs, Caprilli, Vucelic, Hildebrand, Kolacek, Lukas, De Franchis, Jantschek, Anwar, Freitas, Baert, Hawkey, Stange, Escher, Moser, Munkholm, Hommes, and Angelucci, “European evidence based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: Special situations,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. i36–i58, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paolo Gionchetti, Fernando Rizzello, Karen M. Lammers, Claudia Morselli, Rosy Tambasco, and Massimo Campieri, “Antimicrobials in the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” Digestion, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 77–85, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mark T. Osterman, and Gary R. Lichtenstein, “Infliximab in Fistulizing Crohn's Disease,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 795–820, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • B. Bressler, and B. E. Sands, “Review article: medical therapy for fistulizing Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1283–1293, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Simon Lal, and A. Hillary Steinhart, “Antibiotic therapy for Crohn's disease: A review,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 651–655, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paolo Gionchetti, “Antibiotics and probiotics in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 3306, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jimmy K Limdi, “Do probiotics have a therapeutic role in gastroenterology,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 34, pp. 5447, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Philippe Marteau, and Fergus Shanahanpp. 573–585, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Robin S. McLeodpp. 681–696, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fosca De Iorio, Luigi Benini, Naika Tacchella, and Italo Vantinipp. 171–179, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • O. Dewit, “Le traitement des fistules anales dans la maladie de Crohn,” Acta Endoscopica, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 285–294, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • E. Elton, and S. B. Hanauer, “Review article: The medical management of Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dang, Andreani, Grondona, Khan, and Edwards, “Rectovaginal fistula in Crohn's disease,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2215–2222, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Prabhakar P. Swaroop, “Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in the Elderly,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 809–821, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alex Kent, and Jean-Frédéric Colombelpp. 32–35, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • L. Griggs, and D.A. Schwartz, “Medical options for treating perianal Crohn's disease,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 979–987, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paul A. Feldman, Daniel Wolfson, and Jamie S. Barkin, “Medical management of Crohn's disease,” Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 269–281, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yoshihiro Fukuda, Masakazu Takazoe, Akira Sugita, Tadashi Kosaka, Fukunori Kinjo, Yoshimasa Otani, Hisao Fujii, Kazutaka Koganei, Kazuya Makiyama, Toshio Nakamura, Takeyasu Suda, Shojiro Yamamoto, Toshifumi Ashida, Akira Majima, Norikazu Morita, Kazunari Murakami, Nobuhide Oshitani, Kazuya Takahama, Masahiro Tochihara, Tomoyuki Tsujikawa, and Makoto Watanabe, “Oral Spherical Adsorptive Carbon for the Treatment of Intractable Anal Fistulas in Crohn's Disease: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, pp. ???–???, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ben Siemanowski, and Miguel Regueiro, “Management of perianal fistula in Crohnʼs disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 14, no. Supplement, pp. S266–S268, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ben Siemanowski, and Miguel Regueiro, “Management of perianal fistula in Crohnʼs disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 14, pp. S266–S268, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lindsey, Neil J. Mortensen, and Chamberspp. 232–245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Carl J. Brown, and Robin S. McLeodpp. 246–265, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mark T. Osterman, and Gary R. Lichtensteinpp. 429–446, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • David J. Keljo, James Markowitz, Christine Langton, Trudy Lerer, Athos Bousvaros, Ryan Carvalho, Wallace Crandall, Jonathan Evans, Anne Griffiths, Marsha Kay, Subra Kugathasan, Neal LeLeiko, David Mack, Petar Mamula, Susan M. Moyer, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Anthony Otley, Marian Pfefferkorn, Joel Rosh, and Jeffrey S. Hyams, “Course and Treatment of Perianal Disease in Children Newly Diagnosed with Crohnʼs Disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 383–387, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Philip J. Tozer, Kevin Whelan, Robin K.S. Phillips, and Ailsa L. Hart, “Etiology of perianal Crohnʼs disease: Role of genetic, microbiological, and immunological factors,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1591–1598, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kelvin T. Thia, Uma Mahadevan, Brian G. Feagan, Cindy Wong, Alan Cockeram, Alain Bitton, Charles N. Bernstein, and William J. Sandborn, “Ciprofloxacin or metronidazole for the treatment of perianal fistulas in patients with Crohnʼs disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J.-L. Faucheron, G. Poncet, D. Voirin, and R. Riboud, “Chirurgie des complications anorectales de la maladie de Crohn,” EMC - Techniques chirurgicales - Appareil digestif, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1–13, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Carlos Taxonera, David A. Schwartz, and Damián García-Olmo, “Emerging treatments for complex perianal fistula in Crohn's disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 34, pp. 4263–4272, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Robin S. Mcleodpp. 481–497, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kaija-Leena Kolho, Milan Lukas, Christian Mottet, Herbert Tilg, Severine Vermeire, Frank Carbonnel, Andrew Cole, Gottfried Novacek, Max Reinshagen, Epameinondas Tsianos, Klaus Herrlinger, Bas Oldenburg, Yoram Bouhnik, Ralf Kiesslich, Eduard Stange, Simon Travis, James Lindsay, Sibylle Koletzko, Gert Van Assche, Axel Dignass, Walter Reinisch, C. Janneke van der Woude, Andreas Sturm, Martine De Vos, Daniel C. Baumgart, Geert D'Haens, Paolo Gionchetti, Francisco Portela, Boris Vucelic, Johan Soderholm, Johanna Escher, Sibylle Koletzko, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Milan Lukas, Christian Mottet, Herbert Tilg, Severine Vermeire, Frank Carbonnel, Andrew Cole, Gottfried Novacek, Max Reinshagen, Epameinondas Tsianos, Klaus Herrlinger, Bas Oldenburg, Yoram Bouhnik, Ralf Kiesslich, Eduard Stange, Simon Travis, James Lindsay, Mario Guslandi, Bas Oldenburg, Iris Dotan, Philippe Marteau, Alessandro Ardizzone, Gert Van Assche, Axel Dignass, Walter Reinisch, C. Janneke van der Woude, Andreas Sturm, Martine De Vos, Mario Guslandi, Bas Oldenburg, Iris Dotan, Philippe Marteau, Alessandro Ardizzone, Daniel C. Baumgart, Geert D'Haens, Paolo Gionchetti, Francisco Portela, Boris Vucelic, Johan Soderholm, and Johanna Escher, “The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: Special situations,” Journal Of Crohns & Colitis, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 63–101, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. J. Tozer, D. Burling, A. Gupta, R. K. S. Phillips, and A. L. Hart, “Review article: medical, surgical and radiological management of perianal Crohn’s fistulas,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 5–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J.-L. Faucheron, G. Poncet, D. Voirin, and R. Riboud, “Cirugía de las complicaciones anorrectales de la enfermedad de Crohn,” EMC - Técnicas Quirúrgicas - Aparato Digestivo, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J.-L. Faucheron, G. Poncet, D. Voirin, and R. Riboud, “Chirurgia delle complicazioni anorettali della malattia di Crohn,” EMC - Tecniche Chirurgiche Addominale, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Peter W. Marcello, “Diseases of the Anorectum,” Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, pp. 2257–2274.e3, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Luciano Alessandroni, “Perianal Disease,” Crohn’s Disease, pp. 187–201, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cesare Ruffolo, Marilisa Citton, Marco Scarpa, Imerio Angriman, Marco Massani, Ezio Caratozzolo, and Nicolò Bassi, “Perianal Crohn's disease: Is there something new?,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 15, pp. 1939–1946, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ambrogio Orlando, Alessandro Armuzzi, Claudio Papi, Vito Annese, Sandro Ardizzone, Livia Biancone, Aurora Bortoli, Fabiana Castiglione, Renata D'Inca, Paolo Gionchetti, Anna Kohn, Gilberto Poggioli, Fernando Rizzello, Maurizio Vecchi, Mario Cottone, Ambrogio Orlando, Alessandro Armuzzi, Claudio Papi, Vito Annese, Sandro Ardizzone, Livia Biancone, Aurora Bortoli, Fabiana Castiglione, Renata D'Inca, Paolo Gionchetti, Anna Kohn, Gilberto Poggioli, Fernando Rizzello, Maurizio Vecchi, and Mario Cottone, “The Italian Society of Gastroenterology (SIGE) and the Italian Group for the study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IG-IBD) Clinical Practice Guidelines,” Digestive And Liver Disease, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gema de la Poza, Antonio López-Sanroman, Carlos Taxonera, Ignacio Marín-Jimenez, Javier P. Gisbert, Fernando Bermejo, Verónica Opio, and Alfonso Muriel, “Genital fistulas in female Crohn's disease patients.,” Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dawn M. Wiese, and David A. Schwartz, “Managing Perianal Crohn's disease,” Current Gastroenterology Reports, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 153–161, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fernando Rizzello, and Paolo Gionchettipp. 517–534, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Byong Duk Ye, Suk-Kyun Yang, Sung Jae Shin, Kang Moon Lee, Byung Ik Jang, Jae Hee Cheon, Chang Hwan Choi, Young-Ho Kim, and Heeyoung Lee, “Guidelines for the Management of Crohn's Disease,” The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 141, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michał Łodyga, Grazyna Rydzewska, Maria Kłopocka, Ewa Małecka-Panas, Piotr Eder, Witold Bartnik, MacIej Gonciarz, Krzysztof Linke, Piotr Radwan, and Jarosław Reguła, “Guidelines for the management of Crohn's disease. Recommendations of the Working Group of the Polish National Consultant in Gastroenterology and the Polish Society of Gastroenterology,” Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 317–338, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Byong Duk Ye, Suk-Kyun Yang, Sung Jae Shin, Kang Moon Lee, Byung Ik Jang, Jae Hee Cheon, Chang Hwan Choi, Young-Ho Kim, and Heeyoung Lee, “Guidelines for the Management of Crohn's Disease,” Intestinal Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 26, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Edwin F. de Zoeten, Brad A. Pasternak, Peter Mattei, Robert E. Kramer, and Howard A. Kader, “Diagnosis and Treatment of Perianal Crohn Disease,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 401–412, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Brian Kann, “Surgery and nonoperative therapy of perirectal abscesses and anal fistulas,” Improved Outcomes in Colon and Rectal Surgery, pp. 183–198, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • F. Botti, A. Losco, C. Viganò, B. Oreggia, M. Prati, and E. Contessini Avesani, “Imaging techniques and combined medical and surgical treatment of perianal Crohn’s disease,” Journal of Ultrasound, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–35, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mark T. Osterman, and Gary R. Lichtensteinpp. 385–397, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dana R. Sandspp. 247–264, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Giuseppe S Sica, “Treatment of peri-anal fistula in Crohn's disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 37, pp. 13205, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gianluca Pellino, and Francesco Selvaggi, “Surgical Treatment of Perianal Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: From Lay-Open to Cell-Based Therapy—An Overview,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, pp. 1–8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Martin Goetz, Eduard F. Stange, Thomas Klag, and Jan Wehkamp, “Medical Therapy of Perianal Crohn's Disease,” Viszeralmedizin: Gastrointestinal Medicine and Surgery, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 265–272, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. Tozer, D. W. Borowski, A. Gupta, N. Yassin, R. Phillips, and A. Hart, “Managing perianal Crohn’s fistula in the anti-TNFα era,” Techniques in Coloproctology, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 673–678, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Monika Parzęcka, Anna Szaflarska-Popławska, Monika Nowicka, and Agnieszka Kowalczyk, “Zmiany okołoodbytowe jako pierwszy objaw choroby Leśniowskiego i Crohna o lokalizacji krętniczo-kątniczej u dwojga nastoletnich pacjentów,” Pediatria Polska, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 260–265, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anna C. Juncadella, Amer M. Alame, Laurence R. Sands, and Amar R. Deshpande, “Perianal Crohn’s disease: A review,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 266–272, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Miguel Regueiro, David A. Schwartz, and Leyla J. Ghazi, “Guidelines for medical treatment of Crohn's perianal fistulas: Critical evaluation of therapeutic trials,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 737–752, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Julián Panés, Damián García-Olmo, Gert Van Assche, Jean Frederic Colombel, Walter Reinisch, Daniel C Baumgart, Axel Dignass, Maria Nachury, Marc Ferrante, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Jean C Grimaud, Fernando de la Portilla, Eran Goldin, Marie Paule Richard, Anne Leselbaum, and Silvio Danese, “Expanded allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Cx601) for complex perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease: a phase 3 randomised, double-blind controlled trial,” The Lancet, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marina H. Wallace, “Perianal CD assessment surgery,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 31, pp. 20–20, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Riyadh Mohamad Hasan, “Postoperative Empirical Antibiotic Use for Uncomplicated Perianal Abscess and Fistula,” Annals of Colorectal Research, vol. Inpress, no. Inpress, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Riyadh Mohamad Hasan, “Postoperative Empirical Antibiotic Use for Uncomplicated Perianal Abscess and Fistula,” Annals of Colorectal Research, vol. 5, no. 1, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Julián Panés, and Jordi Rimola, “Perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mark T. Osterman, and Gary R. Lichtenstein, “Medical Treatment of Perianal Crohn’s Disease Fistulae,” Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, pp. 451–464, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amy L. Lightner, and William A. Faubion, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Injections for the Treatment of Perianal Crohn’s Disease: What We Have Accomplished and What We Still Need to Do,” Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paolo Gionchetti, Carlo Calabrese, Andrea Calafiore, and Fernando Rizzello, “Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Antibiotics in IBD,” Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, pp. 455–469, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Najjia N. Mahmoud, Yasmin Halwani, Sandra de Montbrun, Puja M. Shah, Traci L. Hedrick, Farzana Rashid, David A. Schwartz, Robin L. Dalal, Jan P. Kamiński, Karen Zaghiyan, Phillip R. Fleshner, Jason M. Weissler, and John P. Fischer, “Current management of perianal Crohn’s disease,” Current Problems in Surgery, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fernando Bermejo, Iván Guerra, Alicia Algaba, and Antonio López-Sanromán, “Pharmacological Approach to the Management of Crohn’s Disease Patients with Perianal Disease,” Drugs, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. J. Tozer, P. Lung, A. J. Lobo, S. Sebastian, S. R. Brown, A. L. Hart, and N. Fearnhead, “Review article: pathogenesis of Crohn's perianal fistula-understanding factors impacting on success and failure of treatment strategies,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amy L. Lightner, Zhen Wang, Abba C. Zubair, and Eric J. Dozois, “A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Injections for the Treatment of Perianal Crohn’s Disease,” Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 629–640, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gary R Lichtenstein, Edward V Loftus, Kim L Isaacs, Miguel D Regueiro, Lauren B Gerson, and Bruce E Sands, “ACG Clinical Guideline: Management of Crohn’s Disease in Adults,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Batool Mutar Mahdi, “Role of Antimicrobial Agents in the Management of Perianal Abscess,” New Concepts in the Management of Septic Perianal Conditions, pp. 71–77, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar