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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume 19, Issue 7, Pages 429-432
Helicobacter Pylori Consensus Update 2004

Invasive Tests for Helicobacter Pylori in Children

Hien Q Huynh

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Stollery Children’s Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Copyright © 2005 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. This open-access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY-NC) (, which permits reuse, distribution, and reproduction of the article, provided that the original work is properly cited and the reuse is restricted to noncommercial purposes.


One of the primary indications for upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in children is the presence of persistent and severe upper abdominal symptoms. Upper GI endoscopies are performed to allow the physician to confirm or rule out upper GI pathology. Additionally, upper GI endoscopies with mucosal biopsies are the gold standard for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and its complications in children. The gastric biopsies can be used for the rapid urease test, histological examination and bacterial culture to determine antibiotic sensitivity. DNA extracted in these biopsies can also be subjected to genotyping using molecular methods to determine the presence of H pylori infection, antibiotic resistance mutations and H pylori virulence factors.