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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 29 (2015), Issue 3, Pages 139-144
Original Article

Noninvasive Methods, including Transient Elastography, for the Detection of Liver Disease in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

Matthew D Sadler,1 Pam Crotty,1 Linda Fatovich,2 Stephanie Wilson,3 Harvey R Rabin,2 and Robert P Myers1,4

1Liver Unit, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
2Adult Cystic Fibrosis Clinic of Calgary and Southern Alberta, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
3Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
4Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Received 2 December 2014; Accepted 5 December 2014

Copyright © 2015 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


BACKGROUND: Liver disease is the third leading cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, detection of CF-associated liver disease (CFLD) is challenging.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of noninvasive methods for the detection of CFLD with a focus on transient elastography (TE).

METHODS: Patients at the Adult CF Clinic of Calgary and Southern Alberta (n=127) underwent liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by TE using the FibroScan (FS, Ecosens, France) M probe; aspartate amino-transferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and FibroTest (FT) scores were also calculated. The diagnostic performance of these tools for the detection of CFLD (defined as two or more the following criteria: abnormal liver biochemistry, hepatomegaly or sonographic abnormalities other than steatosis) were compared using the area under ROC curves.

RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of the cohort was male. The median age was 27 years (interquartile range [IQR] 22 to 37 years) and body mass index 21 kg/m2 (IQR 19 kg/m2 to 23 kg/m2); 25% of patients were on ursodeoxycholic acid and 12% had undergone lung transplantation. The prevalence of CFLD was 14% (n=18). FS was successful in all patients; one (0.8%) patient had poorly reliable results (IQR/M >30% and LSM ≥7.1kPa). Compared with patients without CFLD (n=109), individuals with CFLD had higher median LSM according to FS (3.9 kPa [IQR 3.4 to 4.9 kPa] versus 6.4 kPa [IQR 4.4 to 8.0 kPa]), APRI (0.24 [IQR 0.17 to 0.31] versus 0.50 [IQR 0.22 to 1.18]) and FT scores (0.08 [IQR 0.05 to 1.5] versus 0.18 [IQR 0.11 to 0.35]; all P<0.05). Area under ROC curve for FS, APRI and FT for the detection of CFLD were 0.78 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.92), 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.87) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.90) (P not significant). At a threshold of >5.2 kPa, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of LSM according to FS for detecting CFLD were 67%, 83%, 40% and 94%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: FS, APRI and FT were useful noninvasive methods for detecting CFLD in adults.