Table 3: Responses to stigma items. Respondents were asked to provide their perceptions about people who are hepatitis B carriers.

Vietnamese in Chicago Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City
Number of
valid
responses
Strongly
agree
AgreeDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Number of
valid
responses
Strongly agreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly disagree

(i) Feel ashamed about having HBV16911%18%60%11%8421%16%78%5%<0.001
(ii) Feel that they bring trouble to their family17014%38%42%6%8421%52%45%2%0.839
(iii) Feel guilty about having HBV1709%20%61%9%8421%16%78%5%<0.001
(iv) Put others at risk for HBV17013%24%54%9%8422%59%37%2%<0.001
(v) Should avoid close contact with others such as kissing or hugging17016%28%46%10%8422%41%54%3%0.897
(vi) Should not be isolated17022%41%30%7%8428%79%11%2%<0.001
(vii) May be viewed by others as having a shameful sexually transmitted disease1688%22%61%9%8421%21%73%5%0.011
(viii) Can be trusted not to bring harm to others1708%43%39%10%8423%60%35%2%0.005
(ix) Can be trusted as friends17014%58%24%4%8424%83%12%1%<0.001
(x) Are viewed as undesirable as a husband or wife1708%17%64%11%8421%27%69%3%0.486
(xi) Might be discriminated against at school in the Vietnam1707%22%60%11%8421%19%75%5%0.004
(xii) Might be discriminated against at work in the Vietnam1708%21%60%11%8421%20%74%5%0.023
(xiii) Might be denied healthcare in Vietnam1696%15%66%13%8421%7%82%10%<0.001

For analysis pertaining to individual stigma items, responses were dichotomized as stigma (yes/no).