Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Corrigendum

A corrigendum for this article has been published. To view the corrigendum, please click here.

Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 2017, Article ID 6238106, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6238106
Review Article

Prebiotics: A Novel Approach to Treat Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Cell and Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Q-A Campus, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
2Cell and Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB), University of the Punjab, Q-A Campus, Lahore 54590, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Nadeem Sheikh; moc.oohay@77meedan_s

Received 13 February 2017; Accepted 19 April 2017; Published 10 May 2017

Academic Editor: José L. Mauriz

Copyright © 2017 Naz Fatima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Forner, J. M. Llovet, and J. Bruix, “Hepatocellular carcinoma,” The Lancet, vol. 379, no. 9822, pp. 1245–1255, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Bréchot, “Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: old and new paradigms,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, no. 5, supplement 1, pp. S56–S61, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Staib, S. P. Hussain, L. J. Hofseth, X. W. Wang, and C. C. Harris, “TP53 and liver carcinogenesis,” Human Mutation, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 201–216, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Cougot, C. Neuveut, and M. A. Buendia, “HBV-induced carcinogenesis,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. S75–S78, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. V. J. Shah and P. S. Kamath, Portal Hypertension and Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 19th edition, 2010.
  6. X. Tao, N. Wang, and W. Qin, “Gut Microbiota and hepatocellular carcinoma,” Gastrointestinal Tumors, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. B. S. Madsen, T. Havelund, and A. Krag, “Targeting the gut-liver axis in cirrhosis: antibiotics and non-selective β-blockers,” Advances in Therapy, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 659–670, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Ohtani, “Microbiome and cancer,” Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D.-Y. Li, M. Yang, S. Edwards, and S.-Q. Ye, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: for better or worse, blame the gut microbiota?” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 787–793, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Douhara, K. Moriya, H. Yoshiji et al., “Reduction of endotoxin attenuates liver fibrosis through suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation and remission of intestinal permeability in a rat non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1693–1700, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. A. M. van Leeuwen, M. A. Boermeester, A. P. J. Houdijk et al., “Clinical significance of translocation,” Gut, vol. 35, supplement 1, pp. S28–S34, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Jirillo, D. Caccavo, T. Magrone et al., “The role of the liver in the response to LPS: experimental and clinical findings,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 319–327, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D.-W. Han, “Intestinal endotoxemia as a pathogenetic mechanism in liver failure,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 961–965, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. H. Dapito, A. Mencin, G.-Y. Gwak et al., “Promotion of hepatocellular carcinoma by the intestinal microbiota and TLR4,” Cancer Cell, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 504–516, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. I. Grivennikov, F. R. Greten, and M. Karin, “Immunity, Inflammation, and cancer,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 883–899, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Villanueva, R. Savic, and J. M. Llovet, “Lymphotoxins: New targets for hepatocellular carcinoma,” Cancer Cell, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 272–273, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Schiffer, C. Housset, W. Cacheux et al., “Gefitinib, an EGFR inhibitor, prevents hepatocellular carcinoma development in the rat liver with cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 307–314, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Barochia, S. Solomon, X. Cui, C. Natanson, and P. Q. Eichacker, “Eritoran tetrasodium (E5564) treatment for sepsis: review of preclinical and clinical studies,” Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 479–494, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. M. Fort, A. Mozaffarian, A. G. Stöver et al., “A synthetic TLR4 antagonist has anti-inflammatory effects in two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 10, pp. 6416–6423, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Sha, M. Sunamoto, T. Kitazaki, J. Sato, M. Ii, and Y. Iizawa, “Therapeutic effects of TAK-242, a novel selective Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction inhibitor, in mouse endotoxin shock model,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 571, no. 2-3, pp. 231–239, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Luedde and R. F. Schwabe, “NF-κB in the liver-linking injury, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 108–118, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Chassaing, L. Etienne-Mesmin, and A. T. Gewirtz, “Microbiota-liver axis in hepatic disease,” Hepatology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 328–339, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H.-L. Zhang, L.-X. Yu, W. Yang et al., “Profound impact of gut homeostasis on chemically-induced pro-tumorigenic inflammation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rats,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 803–812, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Petschow, J. Doré, P. Hibberd et al., “Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1306, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Loguercio, A. Federico, C. Tuccillo et al., “Beneficial effects of a probiotic VSL#3 on parameters of liver dysfunction in chronic liver diseases,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 540–543, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. I. Fotiadis, C. N. Stoidis, B. G. Spyropoulos, and E. D. Zografos, “Role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in chemoprevention for colorectal cancer,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 42, pp. 6453–6457, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. D. Davis and J. A. Milner, “Gastrointestinal microflora, food components and colon cancer prevention,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 20, pp. 743–752, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. Larrosa, A. González-Sarrías, M. T. García-Conesa, F. A. Tomás-Barberán, and J. C. Espín, “Urolithins, ellagic acid-derived metabolites produced by human colonic microflora, exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1611–1620, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Gonzalez-Sarrias, M. Larrosa, F. A. Tomas-Barberan, P. Dolara, and J. C. Espin, “NF-kappaB-dependent anti-inflammatory activity of urolithins, gut microbiota ellagic acid-derived metabolites, in human colonic fibroblasts,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 104, pp. 503–512, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  30. U. Etxeberria, A. Fernández-Quintela, F. I. Milagro, L. Aguirre, J. A. Martínez, and M. P. Portillo, “Impact of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich dietary sources on gut microbiota composition,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 40, pp. 9517–9533, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. S. Mandair, R. E. Rossi, M. Pericleous, T. Whyand, and M. Caplin, “The impact of diet and nutrition in the prevention and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma,” Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 369–382, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. R. Ferguson and M. Philpott, “Cancer prevention by dietary bioactive components that target the immune response,” Current Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 459–464, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. C. Lee, A. M. Jenner, C. S. Low, and Y. K. Lee, “Effect of tea phenolics and their aromatic fecal bacterial metabolites on intestinal microbiota,” Research in Microbiology, vol. 157, no. 9, pp. 876–884, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. S. Darvesh and A. Bishayee, “Chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of tea polyphenols in hepatocellular cancer,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 329–344, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. M. Lamuela-Raventos and M. St Onge, “Prebiotic nut compounds and human microbiota,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. B. Cerdá, F. A. Tomás-Barberán, and J. C. Espín, “Metabolism of antioxidant and chemopreventive ellagitannins from strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, and oak-aged wine in humans: Identification of biomarkers and individual variability,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 227–235, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Regueiro, C. Sánchez-González, A. Vallverdú-Queralt, J. Simal-Gándara, R. Lamuela-Raventós, and M. Izquierdo-Pulido, “Comprehensive identification of walnut polyphenols by liquid chromatography coupled to linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry,” Food Chemistry, vol. 152, pp. 340–348, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Zamora-Ros, N. G. Forouhi, S. J. Sharp et al., “Dietary intakes of individual flavanols and flavonols are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in European populations,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 335–343, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. Blade, G. Aragones, A. Arola-Arnal et al., “Proanthocyanidins in health and disease,” Biofactors, vol. 42, pp. 5–12, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. V. Selma, J. C. Espin, and F. A. Tomas-Barberan, “Interaction between phenolics and gut microbiota: role in human health,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 57, pp. 6485–6501, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  41. P. Yoysungnoen, P. Wirachwong, C. Changtam, A. Suksamram, and S. Patumraj, “Anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic effects of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin on implanted hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 2003–2009, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. E. Chuang, M. L. Kuo, C. H. Hsu et al., “Curcumin-containing diet inhibits diethylnitrosamine-induced murine hepatocarcinogenesis,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 331–335, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Cao, Y. Liu, L. Jia et al., “Curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial hyperpolarization and mtDNA damage in human hepatoma G2 cells,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 968–975, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. B. Aggarwal and K. B. Harikumar, “Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 40–59, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. B. B. Aggarwal and B. Sung, “Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases: an age-old spice with modern targets,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 85–94, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. Yang, T. Zhang, and Y. Ito, “Large-scale separation of resveratrol, anthraglycoside A and anthraglycoside B from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc by high-speed counter-current chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 919, no. 2, pp. 443–448, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Athar, J. H. Back, L. Kopelovich, D. R. Bickers, and A. L. Kim, “Multiple molecular targets of resveratrol: anti-carcinogenic mechanisms,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 486, pp. 95–102, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  48. C. B. Yeh, M. J. Hsieh, C. W. Lin et al., “The antimetastatic effects of resveratrol on hepatocellular carcinoma through the downregulation of a metastasis-associated protease by SP-1 modulation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, Article ID e56661, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  49. V. S Vallabha, T. N. Indira, A. Jyothi Lakshmi, C. Radha, and P. K. Tiku, “Enzymatic process of rice bran: a stabilized functional food with nutraceuticals and nutrients,” Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 8252–8259, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. J. Tuñón, M. V. García-Mediavilla, S. Sánchez-Campos, and J. González-Gallego, “Potential of flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: modulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression and signal transduction pathways,” Current Drug Metabolism, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 256–271, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Martinez-Florez, B. Gutierrez-Fernandez, S. Sanchez-Campos, J. Gonzalez-Gallego, and M. J. Tunon, “Quercetin attenuates nuclear factor-kappaB activation and nitric oxide production in interleukin-1beta-activated rat hepatocytes,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, pp. 1359–1365, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  52. I. Suda, F. Ishikawa, M. Hatakeyama et al., “Intake of purple sweet potato beverage affects on serum hepatic biomarker levels of healthy adult men with borderline hepatitis,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 60–67, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. D. Martinez, “The human microbiome: early life determinant of health outcomes,” Annals of the American Thoracic Society, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. S7–S12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. M. Kaczmarczyk, M. J. Miller, and G. G. Freund, “The health benefits of dietary fiber: beyond the usual suspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and colon cancer,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1058–1066, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Q. Shen, L. Zhao, and K. M. Tuohy, “High-level dietary fibre up-regulates colonic fermentation and relative abundance of saccharolytic bacteria within the human faecal microbiota in vitro,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 693–705, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. A. G. M. Weijers, M. C. R. Franssen, and G. M. Visser, “Glycosyltransferase-catalyzed synthesis of bioactive oligosaccharides,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 436–456, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. N. Saad, C. Delattre, M. Urdaci, J. M. Schmitter, and P. Bressollier, “An overview of the last advances in probiotic and prebiotic field,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Y. Wang, “Prebiotics: present and future in food science and technology,” Food Research International, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 8–12, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. X. He, R. Li, G. Huang, H.-M. Hwang, and X. Jiang, “Influence of marine oligosaccharides on the response of various biological systems to UV irradiation,” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 858–868, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Patel and A. Goyal, “Functional oligosaccharides: production, properties and applications,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1119–1128, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. Chen, R. H. Liang, W. Liu et al., “Pectic-oligosaccharides prepared by dynamic high-pressure microfluidization and their in vitro fermentation properties,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 91, pp. 175–182, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  62. A. Verma and G. Shukla, “Administration of prebiotic inulin suppresses 1,2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride induced procarcinogenic biomarkers fecal enzymes and preneoplastic lesions in early colon carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats,” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 991–996, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. J. Bland, T. Keshavarz, and C. Bucke, “The influence of small oligosaccharides on the immune system,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 339, no. 10, pp. 1673–1678, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Koyanagi, N. Tanigawa, H. Nakagawa, S. Soeda, and H. Shimeno, “Oversulfation of fucoidan enhances its anti-angiogenic and antitumor activities,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 173–179, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. Soeda, T. Kozako, K. Iwata, and H. Shimeno, “Oversulfated fucoidan inhibits the basic fibroblast growth factor-induced tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells: Its possible mechanism of action,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research, vol. 1497, no. 1, pp. 127–134, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. Yuan, J. Song, X. Li, N. Li, and J. Dai, “Immunomodulation and antitumor activity of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides,” Cancer Letters, vol. 243, no. 2, pp. 228–234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. Ren, C. Perera, and Y. Hemar, “Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review,” Food & Function, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 1118–1130, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. I. A. Schepetkin and M. T. Quinn, “Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 317–333, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S.-F. Liao, C.-H. Liang, M.-Y. Ho et al., “Immunization of fucose-containing polysaccharides from Reishi mushroom induces antibodies to tumor-associated Globo H-series epitopes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 34, pp. 13809–13814, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. B.-Z. Zaidman, M. Yassin, J. Mahajna, and S. P. Wasser, “Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 453–468, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. H. Zhang, W. u. GQ, and Q. Xue, “Clinical observation of astragalus polysaccharide combined with thermo-chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Chinese Archives of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 30, pp. 926–928, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  72. M. Zhang, S. W. Cui, P. C. K. Cheung, and Q. Wang, “Antitumor polysaccharides from mushrooms: a review on their isolation process, structural characteristics and antitumor activity,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 4–19, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. G. Li, D.-H. Kim, T.-D. Kim et al., “Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus induces G 2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in SW480 human colon cancer cells,” Cancer Letters, vol. 216, no. 2, pp. 175–181, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. X. Bao, C. Liu, J. Fang, and X. Li, “Structural and immunological studies of a major polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 332, no. 1, pp. 67–74, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. S. Kim, S. Kacew, and B. M. Lee, “In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor),” Carcinogenesis, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1637–1640, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. P. Wasser, “Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 258–274, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. H. Tong, F. Xia, K. Feng et al., “Structural characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of a novel polysaccharide isolated from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1682–1686, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. Y. Yoshioka, R. Tabeta, H. Saitô, N. Uehara, and F. Fukuoka, “Antitumor polysaccharides from P. ostreatus (Fr.) quél.: isolation and structure of a β-glucan,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. B. Roberfroid, “Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods?” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, pp. 1682S–1687S, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  80. G. R. Gibson and M. B. Roberfroid, “Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1401–1412, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. N. G. Kondegowda, M. P. Meaney, C. Baker, and Y. H. Ju, “Effects of non-digestible carbohydrates on the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumors implanted in ovariectomized athymic mice,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 55–64, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. H. S. Taper, N. M. Delzenne, and M. B. Roberfroid, “Growth inhibition of transplantable mouse tumors by non-digestible carbohydrates,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 1109–1112, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. C. Daubioul, N. Rousseau, R. Demeure et al., “Dietary fructans, but not cellulose, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker fa/fa rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 967–973, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. F. Guarner and J. R. Malagelada, “Gut flora in health and disease,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9356, pp. 512–519, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. L. B. Bindels, P. Porporato, E. M. Dewulf et al., “Gut microbiota-derived propionate reduces cancer cell proliferation in the liver,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 1337–1344, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. Aoyama, J. Kotani, and M. Usami, “Butyrate and propionate induced activated or non-activated neutrophil apoptosis via HDAC inhibitor activity but without activating GPR-41/GPR-43 pathways,” Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 653–661, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. Y. Tang, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and D. Nie, “Short-chain fatty acids induced autophagy serves as an adaptive strategy for retarding mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death,” Cell Death and Differentiation, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 602–618, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Siavoshian, J.-P. Segain, M. Kornprobst et al., “Butyrate and trichostatin a effects on the proliferation/differentiation of human intestinal epithelial cells: induction of cyclin D3 and p21 expression,” Gut, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 507–514, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. J. Brown, S. M. Goldsworthy, A. A. Barnes et al., “The orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 13, pp. 11312–11319, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. E. le Poul, C. Loison, S. Struyf et al., “Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 28, pp. 25481–25489, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. Yu, W. Zhang, R. Zhang, X. Ruan, P. Ren, and B. Lu, “Lactulose accelerates liver regeneration in rats by inducing hydrogen,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. 128–135, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. D.-W. Zong, C.-Y. Guo, H.-T. Cheng, H.-T. Hu, J.-C. Xiao, and H.-L. Li, “Influence of lactulose on interventional therapy for HCC patients with hepatocirrhosis and hypersplenism,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 193–196, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. G. Vendemiale, G. Palasciano, F. Cirelli, M. Altamura, A. De Vincentiis, and E. Altomare, “Crystalline lactulose in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. Evaluation of clinical and immunological parameters. Preliminary results,” Drug Research, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 969–972, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. H. G. Dehghan, V. R. M. Gupta, S. M. Asif, Y. Darwis, M. Rizwan, and V. P. Mundada, “Assessment of isomalt for colon-specific delivery and its comparison with lactulose,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. S. Masanetz, W. Preißinger, H. H. D. Meyer, and M. W. Pfaffl, “Effects of the prebiotics inulin and lactulose on intestinal immunology and hematology of preruminant calves,” Animal, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 1099–1106, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus