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Figure 3: The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA protect human hepatoma HepG2 cells against the proapoptotic effects of bile acids but worsen their pronecrotic consequences. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were cultured in the presence of DMSO (vehicle, 0.1% v/v), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and/or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids (10, 25, or 50 μM) for 16 H and exposed (a, c, and e) or not (b, d, and f) to a bile acid (BA) mixture consisting of CDCA, CA, DCA, and LCA, 100 μM each, for 2 H. Cell viability (a, b), necrosis (c, d), and apoptosis (e, f) were determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses. At least 10,000 cells were analyzed for each sample. The results (mean ± SD) are representative of two independent experiments. Statistically significant differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) versus vehicle () or bile acids (ǂ) ().