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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 2018, Article ID 6240467, 7 pages
Review Article

Combination Immunotherapy Approaches for Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Pharmacology for Natural Products, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China
2The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Yunqi Zhao; moc.361@qyz_eolhc

Received 6 November 2017; Accepted 24 December 2017; Published 7 March 2018

Academic Editor: Qi Chen

Copyright © 2018 Xianliang Cheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal malignant disease with a very low medium survival. Currently, metastatic pancreatic cancer poorly responds to conventional treatments and exhibits an acute resistance to most chemotherapy. Few approaches have been shown to be effective for metastatic pancreatic cancer treatment. Novel therapeutic approaches to treat patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma are in great demand. Last decades, immunotherapies have been evaluated in clinical trials and received great success in many types of cancers. However, it has very limited success in treating pancreatic cancer. As pancreatic cancer poorly responds to many single immunotherapeutic agents, combination immunotherapy was introduced to improve efficacy. The combination therapies hold great promise for enhancing immune responses to achieve better therapeutic effects. This review summarizes the existing and potential combination immunotherapies for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.