Table 1: Demographic characteristics and comorbidities of patients with Jackhammer esophagus.

Baseline characteristicsTotal n = 36 (%)

Age (years)
 Mean age standard deviation62 13
 Range24 - 87

Sex
 Females32 (89)
 Males4 (11)

Comorbidities
 Digestive
  GERD8 (22)
  Peptic ulcer disease4 (11)
  Irritable bowel syndrome2 (5)
  Gastroparesis1 (2)
  Primary biliary cholangitis1 (2)
 Cardiovascular
  Dyslipidemia8 (22)
  Hypertension7 (19)
  Coronary artery disease4 (11)
  Atrial fibrillation3 (8)
 Endocrine
  Diabetes7 (19)
  Hypothyroidism6 (17)
 Rheumatologic
  Osteoporosis4 (11)
  Limited scleroderma (CREST)2 (5)
  Fibromyalgia2 (5)
  Rheumatoid arthritis2 (5)
  Polymyositis1 (2)
  Gout1 (2)
 Pulmonary
  COPD5 (14)
  Asthma4 (11)
  Interstitial lung disease2 (5)
 Oncologic
  Breast cancer3 (8)
  Renal cancer1 (2)

Lifestyle habits
 Tobacco (past or current)11 (31)
 Alcohol (past or current)7 (19)

PPI use prior to HRM
21 (58)

GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease. CREST: calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRM: high-resolution manometry.