Table 1: Main Characteristics of studies that detect HBV antigen and antibodies in saliva or oral fluid samples.

MarkerPopulationCountryOral fluid device or sample collectionAssaySensitivitySpecificityReference

HBsAgLocal and out-of-state public health clinicsUSAOrasureCommercial Enzyme immunoassay100.0%100.0%[7]
Anti-HBc IgMLocal and out-of-state public health clinicsUSAOrasureCommercial Enzyme immunoassay100.0%100.0%[7]
HBsAgPatients with and without HBVThailandWhole salivaCommercial Enzyme immunoassay96.5%100.0%[8]
Anti-HBcRural communityEthiopiaSponge swabCommercial Enzyme immunoassay43.0%87.0%[9]
Anti-HBcblood donors and injecting drug usersDenmarkOmni-SalCommercial Enzyme immunoassay85.9%100.0%[10]
HBsAgUnit of Gastroenterology of three university hospitalsBelgiumOracolCommercial Enzyme immunoassay90.7%100.0%[11]
Anti-HBc TotalViral Hepatitis ambulatoryBrazilOrasureCommercial Enzyme immunoassay13%100.0%[12]
Anti-HBc IgMViral Hepatitis ambulatoryBrazilOrasureCommercial Enzyme immunoassay100.0%100.0%[12]
Anti-HBsViral Hepatitis ambulatoryBrazilOrasureCommercial Enzyme immunoassay8.33%100.0%[12]
HBsAgViral Hepatitis ambulatoryBrazilSalivetteCommercial Enzyme immunoassay85.1%94.1%[13]
Whole saliva93.6%92.6%
HBsAgViral Hepatitis ambulatory and Pantanal of Mato Grosso do SulBrazilChembioCommercial Enzyme immunoassay95.2%100%[14]
78.3%89.9%
Salivette
HBsAgPatients with and without HBVIndiaWhole salivaCommercial Enzyme immunoassay100%100%[15]
HBsAgAlcoholicsBrazilSalivetteCommercial Enzyme immunoassayNot available100%[16]
HBsAgViral Hepatitis ambulatoryBrazilSalivetteCommercial Enzyme immunoassay80.9%86.8%[17]
Anti-HBc82.4%96.9%