Table 3: Main characteristics of studies that detect HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBsAg in DBS compared to serum.

MarkerPopulationCountryType of AssaySpecificity Sensitivity Reference

HBsAgPregnant womenBrazilEnzyme Immunoassay100%100%[27]
HBsAgUnclearUKchemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay100%98%[28]
HBsAgInpatientsGermanyNot specified99.8%91.7%[29]
HBsAgPatients attending HCV clinicBrazilEnzyme Immunoassay97%98%[30]
HBsAgUnclearGermanychemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay100%99%[31]
HBsAgProspective patients from hepatitis clinic and blood donorsFrancechemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay98%100%[32]
HBsAgAttendees of HIV testing centerBurkina-FasoRapid test, Enzyme Immunoassay, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay100%96%[33]
HBsAgBroadGambiaRapid test100%96%[34]
HBsAgPatients at a tertiary hospitalMalaysiachemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay98%97%[35]
HBsAgUnclearUSchemiluminescent immunoassay100%100%[36]
Anti-HBcUnclearUKchemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay100%100%[37]
Anti-HBcPatients referred to the Viral Hepatitis ClinicBrazilEnzyme Immunoassay92.6%90.5%[30]
Anti-HBcPatients referred to the Viral Hepatitis ClinicBrazilEnzyme ImmunoassayNR90.4%[17]
Anti-HBcUnclearGermanychemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay100%97%[31]
Anti-HBs HospitalMalaysiachemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay86.9%74,2%[35]
Anti-HBsProspective patients from hepatitis clinic and blood donorsFrancechemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay100%98%[32]
Anti-HBsUnclearGermanychemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay100%97.5%[31]
Anti-HBsPatients referred to the Viral Hepatitis ClinicBrazilEnzyme Immunoassay97.3%78%[30]