Table 1: Characteristics of pregnant women and newborn infants from group A, B and C.

Group A
(n=264)
Group B
(n=136)
Group C
(n=251)
P
Group A vs. B
P
Group B vs. C

Maternal
 Primipara193 (73.1%)109 (80.1%)191 (76.1%)0.1210.362
 Age (years)27.6±4.627.7±4.327.5±4.20.8410.444
 Week of gestation39.29±1.0738.91±1.2738.99±1.320.0020.564
 Vaginal delivery64(24.1%)25(18.4%)59(23.5%)0.1820.395
 Premature rupture of membrane18 (6.8%)17(12.5%)31 (12.4%)0.0570.966
 Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid (II-III degree)53 (20.1%)27(19.9%)50 (19.9%)0.9580.987
 Postpartum hemorrhage15 (5.7%)8 (5.9%)14 (5.6%)0.9350.902
Neonatal
 Apgar score (5 min)9.89±0.499.88±0.439.90±0.500.8410.694
 Preterm birth7 (2.7%)7 (5.1%)17 (6.0%)0.1980.527
 Fetal distress56 (21.2%)29 (21.3%)51 (20.3%)0.9790.816

Values are reported as mean ± standard deviation, compared with t test; or number (percentage), compared with chi-square test or fisher's test, unless otherwise indicated. n, number of patients.