Survival Status and Predictors of Mortality among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Saint Peter’s Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaRead the full article
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology publishes original research articles and review articles related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.
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Evaluation of Intraventricular/Intrathecal Antimicrobial Therapy in the Treatment of Nosocomial Meningitis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria after Central Nervous System Surgery
Introduction. Postoperative meningitis (POM) is an infection with high mortality and morbidity following central nervous system surgery due to trauma or tumor. Intrathecal/intraventricular (IT/IVT) antibiotic administrations have been considered as the last treatment options for multidrug-resistance (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria that do not respond to intravenous (IV) regimens. IT/IVT can bypass the blood-brain barrier, obtain a more effective antibiotic concentration in CSF, and reduce systemic side effects. We aimed to determine the characteristics of postoperative patients who were diagnosed with MDR POM during follow-up in our intensive care unit (ICU). Material and Methods. In this study, POM patients who were followed up in ICU after the central nervous system intervention between January 2016 and December 2019 and whose MDR Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from CSF were evaluated. As soon as the patients were diagnosed with POM, a catheter was inserted and treatment was started. Results. Microbiological eradication was achieved in 3 ± 0.8 days with 30 mg/day amikacin treatment in POM due to K. pneumoniae and 3.7 ± 1.95 days with colistin sodium 10 mg/day treatment in POM due to A. baumannii via IT/IVT catheter. IT/IVT treatment was utilized for a median of 10 days and continued until the defined cure criteria were achieved. While cure was achieved in 6 of 14 POM cases, 8 of them were exitus. Discussion and Conclusion. To avoid the severe consequences of postoperative meningitis, acting fast and adding IT/IVT methods to parenteral administration routes by considering the distribution of MDR microorganisms within the hospital while planning effective treatment will increase the clinical success.
Analysis of the Complete Genomes of Enterovirus 71 Subtypes in China
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is one of the most pathogens to hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) as well as neurological complications in young children. Molecular characteristic of EV-A71 is important to prevent the virus outbreak. Here, the complete genomes of EV-A71 from China between 1998 and 2019 were downloaded from GenBank. The phylogenetic trees were developed by MEGA7.0 software, and the complete genetic epidemiological characteristics and amino acid mutations of EV-A71 from China were also analysed. The results showed that major epidemic EV-A71 subtype was C4b before 2004, while it turned to C4a after 2004 in mainland China, and C4 and B5 were major subtypes in Taiwan. VP1, VP4, 2C, 3C, 3D, and complete genome sequence can be used for virus genotyping, and VP1, VP4, and complete genomes have obvious advantages over other segments. There were many significant mutations in the viral complete genome sequence. This study indicated that the major C4 and B5 subtypes will contribute to the development of vaccines and drugs of EV-A71 for prevention and monitoring of EV-A71-associated HFMD in China.
Noninvasive Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis in a Sample of Putative Inactive HBV Carriers in Rome, Italy
Background. Noninvasive methods are useful for investigating patients with chronic HBV infection. The severity of liver disease in inactive HBsAg carriers can be noninvasively assessed by transient elastography (TE) alone or in association with biochemical markers of fibrosis. Objectives. The study evaluates the effectiveness of the TE compared to common fibrosis scores (FSs), APRI, Forns Index, and FIB4, for identifying significant fibrosis in Italian and foreigner HBsAg carriers. To investigate the risk of progression of the liver disease, liver stiffness (LS) and HBV-DNA were monitored over time. Methods. Viral load, biochemical parameters, and LS have been retrospectively evaluated in 125 putative inactive HBV carriers, who visited two outpatient departments (Colleferro Hospital and INMP) from 01/03/2014 to 31/12/2019. Differences in clinical, biochemical, and demographic variables between Italians and foreigners were analyzed. 66 of 125 patients were followed up for 24 months by monitoring liver stiffness and HBV-DNA. Results. Mean overall LS was 5.55 ± 1.92 kPa; 18 (14.4%) patients had a LS ≥7.5 kPa. Mean of APRI, Forns, and FIB4 was 0.29 ± 0.11, 4.15 ± 1.63, and 1.16 ± 0.59, respectively. FS did not differ between the patients with LS <7.5 kPa and those with LS ≥7.5 kPa. Italians displayed a significant lower ALT (0.53 ± 0.18 vs. 0.67 ± 0.33, ) and AST (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.70 ± 0.21, ) value than foreigners. No differences in LS and HBV-DNA levels were observed. In 66 patients followed up for 24 months, HBV-DNA increased by ≥2000 UI/ml after 12 months in 15 individuals and remained ≥2000 UI/ml after 24 months in 10/15 individuals. 7/10 patients showed LS ≥ 7.5 kPa after 24 months, and 4 of them underwent antiviral therapy for HBV. Patients with HBV-DNA <2000 IU/ml had a significantly lower LS than those with HBV-DNA ≥2000 IU/ml (5.30 ± 1.43 vs. 7.69 ± 1.07, ). Conclusions. Analysis shows lower effectiveness of FS vs. TE in the assessment of putative inactive HBV carriers. Furthermore, using FibroScan® and HBV-DNA can identify “false” inactive carriers.
Predictive Immunological, Virological, and Routine Laboratory Markers for Critical COVID-19 on Admission
Background. Early identification of COVID-19 patients at risk of critical illness is a challenging endeavor for clinicians. We aimed to establish immunological, virological, and routine laboratory markers, which, in combination with clinical information, may allow identifying such patients. Methods. Blood tests to measure neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and levels of ferritin, CRP, D-dimer, complement components (C3 and C4), cytokines, and lymphocyte subsets, as well as SARS-Cov-2 RT-PCR tests, were performed in COVID-19-confirmed cases within 48 hours of admission. RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values from oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs were determined on the day of admission. Symptom severity was categorized as mild (grade 1), severe (grade 2), or critical (grade 3). Results. Of 120 patients who were included, 49 had mild, 32 severe, and 39 critical COVID-19. Levels of ferritin >370 ng/mL (OR 16.4, 95% CI 5.3–50.8), D-dimer >440 ng/mL (OR 5.45, 95% CI 2.36–12.61), CRP >7.65 mg/dL (OR 11.54, 95% CI 4.3–30.8), NLR >3.77 (OR 13.4, 95% CI 4.3–41.1), IL-6 >142.5 pg/mL (OR 8.76, 95% CI 3.56–21.54), IL-10 >10.8 pg/mL (OR 16.45, 95% CI 5.32–50.81), sIL-2rα (sCD25) >804.5 pg/mL (OR 14.06, 95% CI 4.56–43.28), IL-1Ra >88.4 pg/mL (OR 4.54, 95% CI 2.03–10.17), and IL-18 >144 pg/mL (OR 17.85, 95% CI 6.54–48.78) were associated with critical COVID-19 in the univariate age-adjusted analysis. This association was confirmed in the multivariate age-adjusted analysis only for ferritin, CRP, NLR, IL-10, sIL-2rα, and IL-18. T, B, and NK cells were significantly decreased in critical patients. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in blood except in 3 patients who had indeterminate results. RT-PCR Ct values from oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs on admission were not related to symptom severity. Conclusion. Ferritin, D-dimer, CRP, NLR, cytokine (IL-18 and IL-10), and cytokine receptor (IL-6, IL1-Ra, and sCD25) test results combined with clinical data can contribute to the early identification of critical COVID-19 patients.
Relationship between the Incidence of Dengue Virus Transmission in Traditional Market and Climatic Conditions in Kaohsiung City
In 2014 and 2015, Southern Taiwan experienced two unprecedented outbreaks, with more than 10,000 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases in each outbreak. The present study was aimed to investigate the influence of meteorological and spatial factors on dengue outbreaks in Southern Taiwan and was conducted in Kaohsiung City, which is the most affected area in Taiwan. The distributed lag nonlinear model was used to investigate the role of climatic factors in the 2014 and 2015 dengue outbreaks. Spatial statistics in the Geographic Information System was applied to study the relationship between the dengue spreading pattern and locations of traditional markets (human motility) in the 2015 dengue outbreak. Meteorological analysis results suggested that the relative risk of dengue fever increased when the weekly average temperature was more than 15°C at lagged weeks 5 to 18. Elevated relative risk of dengue was observed when the weekly average rainfall was more than 150 mm at lagged weeks 12 to 20. The spatial analysis revealed that approximately 83% of dengue cases were located in the 1000 m buffer zone of traditional market, with statistical significance. These findings support the influence of climatic factors and human motility on dengue outbreaks. Furthermore, the study analysis may help authorities to identify hotspots and decide the timing for implementation of dengue control programs.
A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of the Performance of the Widal Test and the Typhidot Immunoassay for Typhoid Fever Diagnosis in the West Region of Cameroon
Background. The diagnosis of typhoid fever based on the Widal slide agglutination test remains a major hurdle in developing countries due to varied perceptions of the value of the Widal test in determining clinical decision-making. We undertook a study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Widal test and the Typhidot immunoassay in patients suspected of having typhoid fever in the Menoua division, West Region of Cameroon. Methods. Blood and stool samples were collected from 558 consenting febrile patients on the basis of suspicion of typhoid fever. These patients attended three district health services of the Menoua division between April 2018 and September 2019. These patients had clinical symptoms suggestive of typhoid fever as determined by their consultant. Serum was used for the Widal slide agglutination test and for the Typhidot rapid immunoassay test based on manufacturer’s guidelines. A composite reference of fever plus positive coproculture for Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi was used as the reference. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the positive and negative tests were calculated as well as Cohen’s kappa for agreement between the two tests. Results. Of 558 patients, 12.90% tested positive for the reference method, 57.17% tested positive for the Widal slide agglutination test, while 15.59% were positive for Typhidot-IgM. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the positive and negative tests were 80.56%, 94.03%, 66.6%, and 97.03% for Typhidot-IgM and 94.44%, 48.35%, 21.32%, and 98.33% for the Widal slide agglutination test, respectively. Cohen’s kappa estimates were 0.1660 (0.121–0.211) and 0.386 (0.312–0.460) for the Widal test and Typhidot immunoassay for 53.6% and 76.16% agreements of all observations, respectively. Conclusion. The Widal test was found to have a lower predictive value for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in our setting. However, the Typhidot test, although better, was not ideal. Diagnosis of typhoid fever should therefore rely on adequate clinical suspicion and a positive Typhidot test to improve the clinical management of typhoid fever in our setting.