Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
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Acceptance rate16%
Submission to final decision94 days
Acceptance to publication19 days
CiteScore3.700
Journal Citation Indicator0.450
Impact Factor2.585

Novel Drug Design for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies

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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology publishes original research articles and review articles related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.

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Chief Editor, Professor Tingtao Chen is currently based at Nanchang University, China. His research focuses on microbial ecology, and effects of natural microorganisms and engineered bacteria on host health.

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We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

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Research Article

Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Associated Factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization Rate among Old-Age Patients with Respiratory Tract Infection Attending Sheik Hassan Yebere Referral and Karamara General Hospitals, Jigjiga, Ethiopia

Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract of humans. Colonization of the upper respiratory tract (carriage of pneumococcus) by S. pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for pneumococcal infection. It is the major cause of respiratory tract infection and frequent cause of physician visits, hospitalization, and death among old-aged patients because of their low immunity status. However, data on S. pneumoniae among old-aged patients in eastern Ethiopia are limited. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and associated factor of S. pneumoniae colonization among old-aged patients. Method. A health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 March to 15 April 2020, at Sheik Hassan Yebere Referral and Karamara General Hospitals, Jigjiga, eastern Ethiopia. A total of 188 individuals greater than or equal to 60 years suspected of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections were included. Sociodemographic, behavioral, living conditions, and clinical data were collected by trained data collectors. Sputum samples were collected and examined for S. pneumoniae using the culture and biochemical tests as per the standard procedures. The Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The data were entered on Epi-data version 3.1, and frequencies, crude odds ratio, and adjusted odds ratio were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae colonization rate among old-aged patients was 13.8% (26/188) (95% CI: 9.6–19.1). Smoking (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.3–8.3), upper airway problems (AOR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1–15), and asthma disease (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.1–8.9) were the factors associated with S. pneumoniae colonization. The isolated organisms showed high antimicrobial resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (n = 12, 46.2%), tetracycline (n = 11, 42.3%), and ampicillin (n = 9, 34.6%). Conclusion. This study showed that high prevalence of S. pneumoniae and antimicrobial resistance for trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline, and ampicillin when compared to similar studies. Cigarette smoking, having upper airway problem, and asthma disease were factors associated with S. pneumoniae colonization. The provision of pneumococci conjugate vaccination and avoiding smoking are highly recommended for old aged in the community.

Research Article

Xiang Qin Kang Gan Granules Treated the Human Coronavirus 229E Induced Pneumonia with Damp-Heat Syndrome in Mice

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes severe respiratory illness, was first reported in Wuhan, China. The etiology of the disease is a new novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was reported to share the same origin as SARS-CoV, causing severe public health events in 2002. Unlike the SARS-CoV, which was conquered in the early summer of 2003, this virus was still contagious widely and reached a pandemic level. It can still spread fast even if the season’s temperature is raised. Here, we made a model of pneumonia of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) with damp-heat syndrome treated by Xiangqin Kanggan granules to find a new medicine for treating these kinds of infectious diseases coronaviruses induced.

Research Article

Evaluation of the Potential Protective Effects of Lactobacillus Strains against Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Background. The beneficial effects of probiotic supplementation standard antibiotic therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection have been verified, but the ability of probiotic monotherapy to eradicate H. pylori remains unclear. Aim. To evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of specific Lactobacillus strains against H. pylori infection. Methods. Seventy-eight patients with H. pylori infection were treated with strain L. crispatus G14-5M (L. crispatus CCFM1118) or L. helveticus M2-09-R02-S146 (L. helveticus CCFM1121) or L. plantarum CCFM8610 at a dose of 2 g twice daily for one month. 14C-urea breath test, the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, serum pepsinogen concentrations, and serum cytokine concentrations of patients were measured at baseline and end-of-trial to analyze the effect of the Lactobacillus strains in eradicating H. pylori infection and reducing gastrointestinal discomfort in patients. In addition, the composition and abundance of the intestinal microbiota of patients were also measured at end-of-trial. Results. The 14C-urea breath test value of the three Lactobacillus treatment groups had decreased significantly, and the eradication rate of H. pylori had increased by the end of the trial. In particular, the eradication rate in the G14-5M treatment group was significantly higher than the placebo group (70.59% vs. 15.38%, ), indicating that one-month administration of the G14-5M regimen was sufficient to eradicate H. pylori infection. The ingestion of Lactobacillus strains also ameliorated the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale scores, and the serum interleukin-8 concentrations of H. pylori-infected patients appeared to modulate the gut microbiota of patients. However, none of the Lactobacillus strains had a significant effect on general blood physiological characteristics, serum tumor necrosis factor α concentrations, or serum pepsinogen concentrations in the patients. Conclusion. Three Lactobacillus strains significantly alleviate the gastrointestinal discomfort and the gastric inflammatory response of H. pylori-infected patients. The activity of probiotics in eradicating H. pyloriinfection may be species/strain specific.

Review Article

Relationships between Efflux Pumps and Emergence of Heteroresistance: A Comprehensive Study on the Current Findings

Heteroresiatnce (HR) is the type of resistance toward one or more antibiotics appearing as a population of the bacterial load consisting of one or more subpopulations with lower antibiotic susceptibility levels than others. Due to the lack of appropriate diagnosis of HR isolates and their importance in resistance emergence to antibiotics, investigating the origins, emergence factors, and HR inhibitors is critical in combating antibiotic resistance. Efflux pumps (EPs) are bacterial systems that own an influential role in acquiring resistance toward anti-bacterial compounds. Studies on EPs revealed that they can affect HR emergence mechanisms and are competent to be introduced as a suitable bacterial target for diagnostic and therapeutic development in combating HR isolates. This review will consider the relations between EPs and the emergence of HR isolates and discuss their importance in confronting this type of antibiotic resistance.

Research Article

SARS-CoV-2 in the Air Surrounding Patients during Nebulizer Therapy

Nebulizer therapy is commonly used for patients with obstructive pulmonary disease or acute pulmonary infections with signs of obstruction. It is considered a “potential aerosol-generating procedure,” and the risk of disease transmission to health care workers is uncertain. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether nebulizer therapy in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is associated with increased dispersion of SARS-CoV-2. Air samples collected prior to and during nebulizer therapy were analyzed by RT-PCR and cell culture. Total aerosol particle concentrations were also quantified. Of 13 patients, seven had quantifiable virus in oropharynx samples, and only two had RT-PCR positive air samples. For both these patients, air samples collected during nebulizer therapy had higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations compared to control air samples. Also, for particle sizes 0.3–5 µm, particle concentrations were significantly higher during nebulizer therapy than in controls. We were unable to cultivate virus from any of the RT-PCR positive air samples, and it is therefore unknown if the detected virus were replication-competent; however, the significant increase in smaller particles, which can remain airborne for extended periods of time, and increased viral RNA concentrations during treatment may indicate that nebulizer therapy is associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

Review Article

Is Myasthenia Gravis a Real Complication of the COVID-19 Vaccine? A Case Report-Based Systematic Review

Background. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular, autoimmune disease that causes weakness by impairing neuromuscular transmission. According to reports, vaccines can lead to autoimmunity in different ways, and COVID-19 vaccines are suggested to trigger MG. We conducted this systematic review to assess MG patients after the COVID-19 vaccination. Methods. We collected 231 studies from four databases from inception to 26 March 2022. Results. 4 case studies were selected from 231 research studies, and data were extracted based on inclusion criteria. In all cases, MG was reported following COVID-19 vaccination. Symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, and ptosis were common. The MG was confirmed through RNST, MRC, NCS, and AchR-binding antibody titer tests. Conclusion. Although all cases of MG were diagnosed following appropriate tests, the sample size was small; therefore, further investigation is required to demonstrate the possible association between MG and COVID-19 vaccination.

Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate16%
Submission to final decision94 days
Acceptance to publication19 days
CiteScore3.700
Journal Citation Indicator0.450
Impact Factor2.585
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.