Trends and Progress on Antibiotic-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Genes in relation to Human Immunodeficiency VirusRead the full article
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology publishes original research articles and review articles related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.
Chief Editor, Professor Tingtao Chen is currently based at Nanchang University, China. His research focuses on microbial ecology, and effects of natural microorganisms and engineered bacteria on host health.
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Ready-to-Eat Foods: A Potential Vehicle for the Spread of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci and Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Buea Municipality, South West Cameroon
The consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated with coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) and especially Staphylococcus aureus puts consumers at a potential risk of food-borne disease or colonization and subsequent infection. This cross-sectional study determined the levels of CoPS and the presence of S. aureus in RTE foods sold in Buea municipality. A total of 420 RTE food samples, comprising 70 each of cake, bread, fruit salad, meat hot-pot, suya, and boiled rice were randomly purchased from February to August 2020. The CoPS counts were determined by culturing on Baird-Parker agar, and S. aureus was identified by amplification of the nuc gene using the polymerase chain reaction. All S. aureus isolates were screened for the presence of classical staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. To determine antimicrobial resistance profiles, each isolate was tested against 11 antimicrobials. Oxacillin-resistant S. aureus strains were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene. Overall, 161 (38.3%) samples had detectable levels of CoPS ranging from 2.0 to 5.81 log10 CFU/g. Based on CoPS levels, 37 (8.81%) of the 420 RTE food samples–only fruit salad and meat hot-pot, had unsatisfactory microbiological quality. A total of 72 S. aureus isolates, comprising 52.78% from fruit salad, 16.67% from meat hot-pot, 12.5% from boiled rice, 9.72% from suya, 5.56% from bread, and 4.17% from cake, were recovered. None of the S. aureus isolates possessed any of the classical enterotoxin genes. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and ofloxacin, while 68 (94.44%) and 66 (91.67%) were susceptible to oxacillin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Resistance to penicillin (93.06%) was highest, followed by amoxicillin (91.67%) and erythromycin (79.17%). Four isolates were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, all of which carried the mecA gene. A total of 24 antibiotypes were identified. Our findings showed that RTE foods sold in the Buea municipality are likely vehicles for the transmission of CoPS and antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus.
Oxygen Requirement and Associated Risk Factors in Post-COVID-19 Patients Admitted to a Tertiary Care Center: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. COVID-19 commonly affects the lungs and may lead to mild to severe hypoxemia. The supplemental oxygen requirement gradually reduces with the improvement in lung pathology. However, a few patients may have exertional desaturation, and ongoing oxygen needs at the time of hospital discharge. The objective of this research was to study the requirement of oxygen therapy in the immediate post-COVID-19 period and its associated risk factors. Materials and Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on the admitted post-COVID-19 patients who had recently tested real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negative in a tertiary care center from August 2021 to mid of October 2021. Nonprobability consecutive sampling was used, and the sample size was 108. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM-SPSS), version 23. The mode of oxygen therapy (nasal cannula, face mask, reservoir mask, or mechanical ventilation) in the first two weeks of the study was presented appropriately in a table. The nonparametric statistical tests were applied to determine the association between the duration of post-COVID-19 oxygen therapy and several other risk factors such as age, gender, comorbidities, smoking status, exposure to firewood, COVID-19 vaccination, and severity of COVID-19. Results. 95 (87.96%) cases required oxygen therapy in their immediate post-COVID-19 period. The overall median duration of oxygen therapy was 6.00 (4.00–10.00) days. The nasal cannula was the most commonly used mode of oxygen supplement. The duration of oxygen therapy was significantly higher in patients aged more than 60 years (6.00 [5.00–11.00], = 0.013), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10.00 [6.00–12.75], = 0.006), history of chronic smoking (9.00 [5.50–13.00], = 0.044), and severe COVID-19 infection (7.00 [5.00–10.50], = 0.042). Conclusions. The proportion of patients requiring oxygen therapy in the immediate post-COVID-19 period was higher than that reported in other studies. In addition, old age (>60 years), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic smoking, and severe COVID-19 infection significantly increased the duration of oxygen therapy. So, these factors should be assessed while discharging patients from COVID-19 facilities, and oxygen supplementation should be planned for needy patients.
Factors Associated with HIV Testing among Male Students Who Have Engaged in Sexual Behaviour in Zhejiang Province, China
Objective. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, identify factors associated with HIV testing among male students who have engaged in sexual behaviour in Zhejiang province, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of HIV infection on campus. Methods. Stratified cluster random sampling analysis was performed, which included general characteristics, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviours, information on HIV testing, and self-risk assessment for HIV infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the influencing factors. Results. Among 2734 male students who have engaged in sexual behaviour, 319 (11.7%) had undergone HIV antibody testing in the previous year. The results of multivariate analysis demonstrated that the participants who were in the junior grade level (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.59, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.10–2.30) exhibited acceptance to male homosexual behaviour (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.19–2.52), had been exposed to testing publicity in the previous year (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06–2.15), had been exposed to self-risk assessment for HIV infection (AOR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.99–3.55), had male or bisexual partners (AOR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.05–2.46), had a score for the scale indicating awareness of different testing methods between 2 and 5 (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.51–3.16) or greater than 6 (AOR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01–2.66), and had a score for the scale indicating knowledge of different testing facilities between 3 and 5 (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.00–2.66) were inclined to engage in HIV testing. Conclusions. In this study, the proportion of HIV-testing among male students who have engaged in sexual behaviour was low. This study revealed that students who exhibited acceptance to male homosexual behaviours had been exposed to publicity for HIV testing or a self-risk assessment for HIV infection which were more inclined to engage in HIV testing. Our study underscores the urgent need to enhance educational interventions concerning HIV risks and warnings as part of the health education curriculum on campus. The graveness of the AIDS epidemic among students necessitates this emphasis. Moreover, we recommend deploying condom-dispensing machines or HIV testing facilities across the campus for easy access to preventive and testing services for HIV.
Antimicrobial-Resistance Profile of Helicobacter pylori, Obtained from Endoscopic Patients in Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia
Background. Antimicrobial resistance for Helicobacter pylori infection is a highly emerging problem throughout the world to treat gastric-associated diseases. People living in developing countries are more likely to acquire a Helicobacter pylori infection and less likely to gate treatment after infection due to poverty. Therefore, the current study was aimed at determining the magnitude and antibiotic-resistance profile of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients who underwent endoscopic examination. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2019 at endoscopy service-providing health facilities that are found in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (Gamby teaching general hospital, Kidane Mihret specialty higher clinic, and Eyasta specialty higher clinic). Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. Antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates from gastric biopsies was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results. The 17.8% proportion of Helicobacter pylori was isolated from 135 endoscopy-examined patients (24/135). The majority of isolates (71% of 17/24) were from males, while only 29% of 7/24) were from females. Antimicrobial-resistance of Helicobacter pylori was high to all commonly prescribed antibiotics: amoxicillin and metronidazole (91.7%), clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin (66.7% each), and tetracycline (37.5%). Conclusion. Helicobacter pylori isolates from the current study participants were rather low in number. But the highest antibiotic-resistance profile of Helicobacter pylori was observed. Therefore, these findings alarmingly indicate that routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing against Helicobacter pylori isolates is crucial for better patient management.
Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Traditional Antimalarial and Antidengue Plants: A Mechanistic Perspective
Malaria, a highly perilous infectious disease, impacted approximately 230 million individuals globally in 2019. Mosquitoes, vectors of over 10% of worldwide diseases, pose a significant public health menace. The pressing need for novel antimalarial drugs arises due to the imminent threat faced by nearly 40% of the global population and the escalating resistance of parasites to current treatments. This study comprehensively addresses prevalent parasitic and viral illnesses transmitted by mosquitoes, leading to the annual symptomatic infections of 400 million individuals, placing 100 million at constant risk of contracting these diseases. Extensive investigations underscore the pivotal role of traditional plants as rich sources for pioneering pharmaceuticals. The latter half of this century witnessed the ascent of bioactive compounds within traditional medicine, laying the foundation for modern therapeutic breakthroughs. Herbal medicine, notably influential in underdeveloped or developing nations, remains an essential healthcare resource. Traditional Indian medical systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani, with a history of successful outcomes, highlight the potential of these methodologies. Current scrutiny of Indian medicinal herbs reveals their promise as cutting-edge drug reservoirs. The propensity of plant-derived compounds to interact with biological receptors positions them as prime candidates for drug development. Yet, a comprehensive perspective is crucial. While this study underscores the promise of plant-based compounds as therapeutic agents against malaria and dengue fever, acknowledging the intricate complexities of drug development and the challenges therein are imperative. The journey from traditional remedies to contemporary medical applications is multifaceted and warrants prudent consideration. This research aspires to offer invaluable insights into the management of malaria and dengue fever. By unveiling plant-based compounds with potential antimalarial and antiviral properties, this study aims to contribute to disease control. In pursuit of this goal, a thorough understanding of the mechanistic foundations of traditional antimalarial and antidengue plants opens doors to novel therapeutic avenues.
Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis Promotes Mucosal Barrier Damage and Immune Injury in HIV-Infected Patients
The intestinal microbiota is an “invisible organ” in the human body, with diverse components and complex interactions. Homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining the normal physiological process and regulating immune homeostasis. By reviewing more than one hundred related studies concerning HIV infection and intestinal microbiota from 2011 to 2023, we found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can induce intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, which not only worsens clinical symptoms but also promotes the occurrence of post-sequelae symptoms and comorbidities. In the early stage of HIV infection, the intestinal mucosal barrier is damaged and a persistent inflammatory response is induced. Mucosal barrier damage and immune injury play a pivotal role in promoting the post-sequelae symptoms caused by HIV infection. This review summarizes the relationship between dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and mucosal barrier damage during HIV infection and discusses the potential mechanisms of intestinal barrier damage induced by intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and inflammation. Exploring these molecular mechanisms might provide new ideas to improve the efficacy of HIV treatment and reduce the incidence of post-sequelae symptoms.