Microbiological and Clinicoepidemiological Profile of a Series of Patients with Infective Endocarditis at a Center in Eastern NepalRead the full article
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.
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A Clinical Monitoring Program of COVID-19 Outpatients: A Prospective Cohort Study
Purpose. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. While a high portion of COVID-19 patients have mild symptoms, a limited number of clinical trials have evaluated the clinical course of this large group of patients. This study was designed to investigate the demographics and clinical characteristics and comorbidity of nonhospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods. This prospective, observational cohort study was performed on nonhospitalized adult patients (≥18 years) with COVID-19. Pharmacotherapy service was responsible for patients’ assessment for up to 1 month. Demographic characteristics, the onset of symptoms, severity, duration, laboratory data, and hospitalization rate were evaluated by a pharmacist-based monitoring program. Results. From 323 patients who had been referred to the emergency department, 105 individuals were recruited between April 26 and August 2, 2020. Most of the patients were female (66.7%) with a mean age of 39.39 years (SD: ± 15.82). The mean time of the symptom onset was 5.6 days (SD: ±1.79). The majority of patients suffered from fatigue (78.1%), sore throat (67.6%), cough (60%), and myalgia (55.2%). C-reactive protein, white blood cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and hemoglobin levels were recovered significantly during the first two weeks (). Hydroxychloroquine, naproxen, diphenhydramine, azithromycin, and vitamin D3 were the most common medications administered (98%, 96%, 94%, 68%, and 57%, respectively). Forty patients were not symptom-free after the one-month follow-up, and 8 patients (7.6%) were required to revisit without the need for hospitalization. Anosmia (18.1%) and fatigue (17.1%) were the most common persisted symptoms. There were no significant differences between symptom-free and symptomatic patients. Conclusion. Mild COVID-19 patients had a wide variety of symptoms and could be symptomatic even one month after the onset of symptoms. The pharmacist-based monitoring system can contribute beneficially to patients through the evaluation of symptoms, reduction of unnecessary visits, and provision of updated information to patients concerning the status of their illness.
The Effectiveness of Interventions in Improving Hand Hygiene Compliance: A Meta-Analysis and Logic Model
Background. Despite the availability of various guidelines, rules, and strategies, hand hygiene adherence rates among healthcare workers are reported significantly lower than expected. The aim of this meta-analysis is to determine the most effective interventions to improve hand hygiene and to develop a logic model based on the characteristics of the most effective interventions. Methods. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect databases up to December 21, 2019, with no time limit. Randomized clinical trials which had designed interventions to improve hand hygiene were reviewed. Data were extracted independently by two authors. All statistical analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software (version 2.0). A random-effects model was used to estimate odds ratios. Results. Although 14 studies were initially reviewed, only 12 studies entered the meta-analysis, since they had identified percentage rates of hand hygiene compliance. The most effective intervention (odds ratio 18.4, 95% CI (13.6–24.8)) was a multilevel strategy that influenced the determinants of hand hygiene behavior at individual, interpersonal, and organizational levels. Following this, a theory-driven logic model was mapped out to promote hand hygiene, based on situational analysis. Conclusion. This study suggests that designing integrated interventions based on a multilevel socioecological approach has the greatest potential to improve hand hygiene compliance in healthcare workers. The logical model proposed in this study can thus provide a useful guide for designing and conducting future experimental research.
Cardiac Manifestations in COVID-19 Patients: A Focus on the Pediatric Population
Background. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain of the coronavirus family that emerged by the end of 2019 and led to the unpreceded COVID-19 pandemic. The virus affects multiple organs simultaneously and leads to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. The cardiovascular system is one of the major affected organ systems. Various mechanisms including direct myocardial injury contribute to the cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 patients. Methods. We performed a comprehensive and updated search on the cardiac manifestations of COVID-19. Our search included laboratory and imaging evaluations. In addition, we added a unique section on the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the cardiovascular system in the pediatric population. Results. COVID-19 might have an effect on the cardiovascular system at various levels leading to myocardial ischemia, arrhythmia, heart failure, myocarditis, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The incidence of cardiovascular complications varies among patients. This paper also provides a comprehensive summary of all the reported pediatric cases with cardiac manifestations. Conclusion. Multidisciplinary teams are crucial for adequate management of patients with COVID-19 regardless of age. Timely diagnosis is critical in reducing mortality.
Comparison between Whatman FTA Elute Cards and Conventional Swab for the Detection of Pathogenic Enteric Bacteria Using an RT-qPCR Assay
The emergence of outbreaks of foodborne illness is closely associated with food contamination caused by various enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The control of enteric pathogens poses a challenge due to the fact that these pathogens can persist for a long period of time in the environment. The rapid detection of pathogenic organisms plays a crucial role in the prevention and identification of crises related to health, safety, and well-being. Improper sample handling and processing may influence the diagnostic efficacy and accuracy. The aim of the present study was to compare the preservation capacity for enteric bacteria between Whatman Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards and swabs for reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) detection. It was found that Whatman FTA cards exhibited an improved preservation capacity for five types (both laboratory and environmental strains) of enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus for RT-qPCR detection. Hence, Whatman FTA cards may be a suitable tool for the routine isolation of foodborne bacteria for molecular diagnosis. Therefore, the use of Whatman FTA cards for sample collection and preservation may increase sensitivity and accuracy for bacteria isolation and diagnosis.
Prevalence and Determinants of Diarrheal Diseases among Under-Five Children in Horo Guduru Wollega Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Diarrheal diseases are the leading cause of preventable death, especially among under-five children in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Although efforts have been made to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from diarrheal diseases, there is scarce information on the progress of the interventions against the burdens. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of diarrhea and its associated factors in under-five children in Horo Guduru Wollega Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Of 12,316 households, 620 households that had under-five children were selected by simple random sampling technique from randomly selected kebeles. Before data collection, a pretest of the structured questionnaires was done on nonselected kebeles. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of the diarrheal diseases with independent variables. Finally, the odds ratio along with a 95% confidence interval was used to report the significant association between the outcome variable and its associated factors. A value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant Results. The prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children was 149 (24%) (95% CI: 20.8, 27.3). Diarrhea was significantly associated with poor knowledge of mothers/caretakers on diarrhea prevention methods (AOR: 2.05, 95% CI (1.14, 3.69), being in the age group of 6–11(AOR = 1.546 (1.68, 3.52), and 12–23 months (AOR = 1.485 (1.84, 2.63)), families with poor wealth index (AOR: 2.41, 95% CI (1.29, 4.51)), children who were not vaccinated against measles (AOR: 4.73, 95% CI (2.43, 9.20)), unsafe child feces disposal (AOR = 3.75; 95% CI (1.91, 7.39)), inappropriate liquid waste disposal (AOR = 3.73 (1.94, 7.42)), and having two or more siblings (AOR: 3.11, 95% CI (1.81, 5.35)). Conclusion and Remarks. The prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children was high. There was a statistically significant association between diarrhea and age of the child (6–11 and 12–23), poor knowledge of mothers/caretakers on diarrhea prevention methods, families with poor wealth index, being unvaccinated against measles, improper liquid waste disposal, unsafe child feces disposal, and having at least two siblings. The findings have a significant policy inference for childhood diarrheal disease prevention programs. Therefore, educating mothers/caregivers on diarrheal disease prevention methods, child spacing, regular hand washing practice after disposing child feces, safely disposing liquid waste, and vaccinating all eligible children against measles should be a priority area of intervention for diarrheal disease prevention. Moreover, since these associated factors are preventable, the government needs to strengthen the health extension workers program implementations to reduce childhood diarrhea.
Multidrug-Resistant Shigellosis among Children Aged below Five Years with Diarrhea at Banadir Hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia
Globally, shigellosis remains the second leading cause of diarrhea-associated deaths among children under five years of age, and the infections are disproportionately higher in resource-limited settings due to overcrowding, poor sanitation, and inadequate safe drinking water. The emergence and global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella are exacerbating the shigellosis burden. We adopted a cross-sectional study design to determine the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility (AST) patterns of Shigella serogroups among children aged below five years presenting with diarrhea at Banadir Hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia, from August to October 2019. Stool and rectal swab samples were collected from 180 children consecutively enrolled using a convenient sampling technique and processed following standard bacteriological methods. AST was determined using the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method and interpreted as per the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2018) guidelines. Shigellosis prevalence was 20.6% (37/180), and S. flexneri (26/37 (70.3%)) was the predominant serogroup. All the serogroups were 100% resistant to ampicillin (AMP), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and tetracycline (TE). Ceftriaxone (CRO) resistance was the highest among S. sonnei (66.7%) isolates. 19.2% of S. flexneri and S. sonnei (50%) serogroups were resistant to ciprofloxacin (CIP), but all S. dysenteriae type 1 isolates remained (100%) susceptible. Forty percent of CIP-susceptible S. dysenteriae type 1 were resistant to CRO. Seven MDR Shigella phenotypes were identified, dominated by those involving resistance to AMP, SXT, and TE (100%). Our findings showed a high prevalence of shigellosis with S. flexneri as the most predominant serogroup among children under five years of age in Banadir Hospital, Somalia. AMP and SXT are no longer appropriate treatments for shigellosis in children under five years in Banadir Hospital. MDR Shigella strains, including those resistant to CIP and CRO, have emerged in Somalia, posing a public health challenge. Therefore, there is an urgent need for AMR surveillance and continuous monitoring to mitigate the further spread of the MDR Shigella strains in Banadir Hospital and beyond.