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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages e163-e168
Original Article

Emergence of and Risk Factors for Ciprofloxacin-Gentamicin-Resistant Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections in a Region of Quebec

Jacques Pépin, Mireille Plamondon, Caroline Lacroix, and Isabelle Alarie

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada

Copyright © 2009 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


BACKGROUND: An increased incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by ciprofloxacin-gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli (CiGREC) has been observed in a tertiary care centre in Sherbrooke, Quebec. The risk factors for such infections remained unclear.

METHODS: To determine risk factors for, and outcomes of, CiGREC UTIs, a case control study was conducted. Between 2000 and 2007, 93 cases and 186 controls were identified using laboratory records of patients with greater than 107 colony-forming units/L of E coli in a urinary specimen. Cases had E coli with minimum inhibitory concentration to ciprofloxacin of 4 mg/L or greater and minimum inhibitory concentration to gentamicin of 8 mg/L or greater (CiGREC), and controls had E coli with any other susceptibility pattern to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression.

RESULTS: The prevalence of CiGREC increased sixfold during the study period. Risk factors associated with CiGREC UTI were advanced age, male sex, urological abnormality, domicile outside Sherbrooke, living in a nursing home (AOR 11.73; 95% CI 3.70 to 37.15), use of fluoroquinolones (AOR 15.24; 95% CI 5.42 to 42.83) or aminoglycosides (AOR 6.59; 95% CI 1.22 to 35.61) within the previous month, and use of fluoroquinolones during the preceding one to 12 months (AOR 2.45; 95% CI 1.06 to 5.62). Compared with controls, cases were more likely not to receive an active antibiotic as empirical or definitive treatment, and were more likely to relapse.

INTERPRETATION: In the future, it may become necessary to avoid selecting as empirical therapy of urinary tract infection an antibiotic to which the patient has been recently exposed.