Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology

Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology / 2010 / Article

Original Article | Open Access

Volume 21 |Article ID 867571 | 5 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/867571

Pneumococcal Peritonitis: Still with Us and Likely to Increase in Importance

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal peritonitis is uncommon and poorly understood.METHODS: As part of a five-year study (2000 to 2004) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Alberta, all cases of peritonitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae were reviewed and compared with all other cases of IPD.RESULTS: Twenty-three of 1768 (1.3%) IPD patients were found to have peritonitis. Patients with peritonitis were more likely to have cirrhosis, hepatitis C, alcoholism and HIV/AIDS, than the remainder of the patients with IPD. The all-cause mortality did not differ between the two groups. Peritonitis was classified as primary in nine (39%) patients, secondary in 12 (52%) patients, and genitourinary in females, specifically, in two (9%) patients. Pneumococcal serotypes causing peritonitis were under-represented in current vaccines – 17% among peritonitis patients versus 53% for the remainder of IPD patients for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and 56% versus 86% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.CONCLUSIONS: Peritonitis represents a small subset of patients with IPD, but one that is likely to grow in importance given the increase in the number of patients with hepatitis C and HIV, and the reduced coverage of peritonitis serotypes in currently available vaccines.

Copyright © 2010 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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