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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 132-136
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/971701
Original Article

Pharmacodynamic Profiling of Antimicrobials against Gram-negative Respiratory Isolates from Canadian Hospitals

Rebecca A. Keel,1 George G. Zhanel,2 Sheryl Zelenitsky,2 and David P. Nicolau1

1Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Connecticut, USA
2University of Manitoba, Bannatyne Campus, Winnipeg, Manitoba, USA

Copyright © 2011 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the profile of a variety of dosing regimens for common intravenous antibiotics against contemporary Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected in Canada during 2009, using pharmacodynamic modelling techniques. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted for standard and/or prolonged infusion regimens of cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, doripenem, ertapenem, meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was calculated using bactericidal targets for each regimen against each species. All cefepime, doripenem, ertapenem and meropenem regimens achieved optimal exposures against Enterobacteriaceae, whereas target attainment was organism and dose dependent for the other agents. These results support that the currently recommended antimicrobial dosing regimens generally attain acceptable exposures to achieve the requisite pharmacodynamic targets against the Enterobacteriaceae species; however, they fall short of obtaining optimal bactericidal exposures against P aeruginosa.

BACKGROUND: With diminishing antimicrobial potency, the choice of effective empirical therapy has become more challenging. Thus, the pharmacodynamic evaluation of potential therapies is essential to identify optimal agents, doses and administration strategies.

METHODS: Monte Carlo simulation was conducted for standard and/or prolonged infusion regimens of cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, doripenem, ertapenem, meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were obtained for Escherichia coli (n=64 respiratory isolates), Enterobacter cloacae (n=53), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=75) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=273) throughout Canada. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was calculated using bactericidal targets for each regimen against each species. A CFR ≥90% was defined as optimal.

RESULTS: All cefepime, doripenem, ertapenem and meropenem regimens achieved optimal exposures against Enterobacteriaceae, whereas target attainment was organism and dose dependent for the other agents. Prolonged infusion doripenem and meropenem 1 g and 2 g every 8 h, along with standard infusion doripenem and meropenem 2 g every 8 h, were the only regimens to attain optimal exposures against P aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin had the lowest CFR against P aeruginosa, followed by cefepime. Among the P aeruginosa isolates collected in the intensive care unit (ICU) compared with the wards, differences of 0.5% to 10% were noted in favour of non-ICU isolates for all agents; however, marked differences (10% to 15%) in CFR were observed for ciprofloxacin in favour of ICU isolates.

CONCLUSION: Standard dosing of cefepime, doripenem, ertapenem and meropenem has a high likelihood of obtaining optimal pharmacodynamic indexes against these Enterobacteriaceae. For P aeruginosa, aggressive treatment with high-dose and/or prolonged infusion regimens are likely required to address the elevated resistance rates of respiratory isolates from Canada.