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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 24 (2013), Issue 1, Pages e16-e21
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/176494
Original Article

Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use Associated with Laboratory-Confirmed Cases of Campylobacter Infection in Two Health Units in Ontario

Anne E Deckert,1,2 Richard J Reid-Smith,1,2 Susan E Tamblyn,3 Larry Morrell,4 Patrick Seliske,5 Frances B Jamieson,6 Rebecca Irwin,2 Catherine E Dewey,1 Patrick Boerlin,7 and Scott A McEwen1

1Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Canada
2Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, Canada
3Public Health Consultant, Stratford, Canada
4Perth District Health Unit, Stratford, Canada
5Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph District Health Unit, Guelph, Canada
6Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada
7Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

AIM: A population-based study was conducted over a two-year period in the Perth District (PD) and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph (WDG) health units in Ontario to document antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with clinical cases of laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis.

METHODS: Etest (bioMérieux SA, France) was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin, erythromycin (ERY), gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Data regarding antimicrobial use were collected from 250 cases.

RESULTS: Of the 250 cases, 165 (65.7%) reported staying home or being hospitalized due to campylobacteriosis. Fifty-four per cent of cases (135 of 249) reported taking antimicrobials to treat campylobacteriosis. In 115 cases (51.1%), fecal culture results were not used for treatment decisions because they were not available before the initiation of antimicrobial treatment and/or they were not available before the cessation of symptoms. Of the 250 cases, 124 (49.6%) had available Campylobacter isolates, of which 66 (53.2%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested. No resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin was found in these isolates. Six isolates (4.8%) were resistant to CIP. Two isolates (1.6%) were resistant to ERY; however, no isolates were resistant to both CIP and ERY.

CONCLUSION: Prudent use practices should be promoted among physicians to reduce the use of antimicrobials for the treatment of gastroenteritis in general and campylobacteriosis in particular, as well as to minimize the future development of resistance to these antimicrobials in Campylobacter species.