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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 2018, Article ID 1346104, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1346104
Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Active TB among Adult HIV Patients Receiving ART in Northwestern Tanzania: A Retrospective Cohort Study

1Department of Medicine, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, 1464 Mwanza, Tanzania
2Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Dodoma, 395 Dodoma, Tanzania
3Department of Infectious Disease, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Moshi, Tanzania
4Department of Medicine, Bugando Medical Centre, 1370 Mwanza, Tanzania

Correspondence should be addressed to Daniel W. Gunda; moc.oohay@2002ver_leinad

Received 23 April 2018; Accepted 19 June 2018; Published 4 July 2018

Academic Editor: José A. Oteo

Copyright © 2018 Daniel W. Gunda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Although ART has improved the outcome of people living with HIV/AIDS, still some patients develop TB while receiving ART. The literature on the magnitude of this problem is still scarce in our setting especially northwestern Tanzania. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active TB among HIV patients on ART and assess its potential risk factors. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was done among adult HIV-positive patients initiated on ART at Bugando Medical Centre. Patients who were TB positive before ART initiation were excluded. Data regarding demographic, clinical, and laboratory information, TB status on receipt of ART, and time on ART were collected and analyzed using STATA 11 to determine the prevalence of TB and its associated factors. Results. In total, 391 patients were enrolled in this study. The median age was 39 (32–46) years, and a total of 129 (32.99%) participants had CD4 counts <200 cells/µl and 179 (45.78%) had WHO stage 3 and 4 illnesses. A total of 43 (11.0%) participants developed TB while receiving ART which was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.9; ), WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 (OR = 1.4; ), baseline CD4 count <200 cells/µl (OR = 9.1; ), and having not used IPT (OR = 3.1; ). Conclusions. Active TB is prevalent among HIV patients while receiving ART in northwestern Tanzania which is independently associated with male gender, advanced HIV disease, and nonuse of IPT. Universal HIV testing could reduce late HIV diagnosis and hence reduce the risk of developing TB while receiving ART in our setting. Also IPT should be widely used for those who are negative for TB on screening.