Table 5

ApplicationsPopulation/animal modelsRadioligandMain findingsRef.

Rheumatic diseases

Preclinical6 rats were injected with 1% carrageenan solution into the paw
8 genetically susceptible rats were injected with inactivated . butyricum into the nail
11C-PBR28Significantly higher tracer in carrageenan-treated paws compared to paired contralateral controls
Increased radioligand mean of 60-minute time-activity data was found at the root of the tail, sacroiliac joints, and knees, compared to controls
Shao et al. (2013) [128]

Preclinical18 rats ( for each tracer, resp.) were injected with mBSA to induce knee arthritis versus 5 untreated rats11C-DPA-713/18F-DPA-714/11C-PK11195All three TSPO tracers clearly accumulated in arthritic knees
Mean absolute SUV of the three radioligands was markedly higher than in contralateral knees
Gent et al. (2014) [129]

Preclinical11 rats were injected with inactivated M. tuberculosis into the tail versus 6 rats nontreated18F-DPA-714Increased tracer binding in ankles of treated rat, compared to control rat at 20 days
The mean radioligand uptake value in treated animals was more than twice that of nontreated animals
Association analysis exhibited a good relation between tracer uptake and the joint swelling
Pottier et al. (2014) [130]

Clinical10 RA patients with active arthritis versus 8 HC11C-PK11195The mean and the mean SUV ratios were significantly higher in knees with score severe synovial swelling score than those in mild and absent synovial swelling
SUV ratios in the contralateral uninflamed knee joints of RA patients were 50% higher than those in uninflamed knee joints of healthy volunteers
van der Laken et al. (2008) [125]

Musculoskeletal disorders

PreclinicalMouse were injected with oil of turpentine into the left thigh muscle and then followed-up for 26 days after injection18F-DPA-714The inflammatory muscles showed significantly increased local accumulation of tracer compared with collateral muscle
The uptake peaked on day 6 and then dropped slowly along with the time till day 26, which was still higher than that in collateral muscle
Wu et al. (2014) [140]

AUC, area under the curve; HC, healthy controls; mBSA, methylated bovine serum albumin; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SUV, standardized uptake value; , total volume of distribution.