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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 914196, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/914196
Research Article

Risk Factors for Mortality among 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Hospitalizations in Maricopa County, Arizona, April 2009 to March 2010

1School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
2Division of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
3Office of Epidemiology, Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Phoenix, AZ 85012, USA

Received 14 April 2012; Accepted 28 May 2012

Academic Editor: Hiroshi Nishiura

Copyright © 2012 G. Chowell et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We analyzed individual-level data on pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm hospitalizations from the enhanced surveillance system of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, AZ, USA from April 1st, 2009 to March 31st, 2010. We also assessed the the risk of death among A/H1N1 hospitalizations using multivariate logistic regression. Hospitalization rates were significantly higher among Native Americans (risk ratio (RR) = 6.2; 95% CI: 6.15, 6.21), non-Hispanic Black (RR = 3.84; 95% CI: 3.8, 3.9), and Hispanics (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.01) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Throughout the spring, 59.2% of hospitalized patients received antiviral treatment; the proportion of patients treated increased significantly during the fall to 74.4% (Chi-square test, ). In our best-fit logistic model, the adjusted risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients was significantly higher during the fall wave (August 16, 2009 to March 31, 2010, OR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.72, 9.03) compared to the spring wave (April 1, 2009 to August 15, 2009). Moreover, chronic lung disease (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 7.4), cancer within the last 12 months (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.3, 14.8), immuno-suppression (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84, 8.9), and admission delays (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2, 9.5) were significantly associated with an increased the risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients.