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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 570878, 7 pages
Research Article

Theoretical Hill-Type Muscle and Stability: Numerical Model and Application

1Department of Sports and Exercise Science, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 28, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
2Stuttgart Research Centre for Simulation Technology, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 5a, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
3Institute of Sports Science, Science of Motion, University of Jena, Seidelstraß 20, 07749 Jena, Germany

Received 19 July 2013; Accepted 19 September 2013

Academic Editor: Zhonghua Sun

Copyright © 2013 S. Schmitt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today’s biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator.