Table 1: Classification of constitutive models of knee tissues used in the literature for the computational modeling of the knee joint.

TissueMaterial model
Single-phase (solid phases only)Poromechanical
Rigid Spring elementsLinear elastic Hyperelastic Viscoelastic Fiber-reinforced Fiber-reinforced
IsotropicTransversely isotropic

Bones[80, 81, 8488, 97, 107111, 113116, 121, 137, 143, 148, 150, 158160, 190195, 199201, 206, 213][32, 105, 110, 136, 138, 144146, 150, 152, 157, 198, 209, 215]

Articular cartilagesRigid femoral cartilage; deformable tibial cartilage [81][18, 80, 81, 84, 85, 97, 105, 108111, 114116, 121, 136, 137, 142, 143, 145, 146, 150, 152, 157160, 190, 191, 193195, 199, 200, 209][105][113, 174, 214][113, 148, 198][32, 8688, 112, 138, 139]

Menisci[81, 107, 108, 143, 190][18, 84, 105, 109, 142, 150, 157, 193195, 199, 200, 209][85, 97, 110112, 136, 160][113][80, 113116, 148, 158, 159, 191, 198][32, 8688, 138, 139]

Ligaments[80, 81, 97, 107, 108, 110, 111, 113116, 143, 148, 150, 158, 159, 190, 191, 206, 210, 211][215][18, 84, 85, 109, 142, 192195, 199, 209][8688][206]